• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Performance appraisals are of importance to the organisation, as they often provide the only measure of an individual's contribution and as such the means for identifying either over or under achievement

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Running Head: PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Management [Name of the writer] [Name of the institution] Performance Management The basis of the mainstream of performance appraisals within the modern workplace is one person (a manager or executive) rating one more, an intrinsically individual process. There are distinction such as 360 degree appraisals that include the judgment of others such as clientele and peers/colleagues in the process but it is the action of one person transitory judgment upon another that is subjective in nature and the root cause of many of the problems encountered in the research associated with performance appraisals. Performance appraisals are of importance to the organisation, as they often provide the only measure of an individual's contribution and as such the means for identifying either over or under achievement. This information identifies strengths and weaknesses among employees, locating areas for necessary training and development and helps employers implement appropriate reward policies designed to improve the performance of the employees and (as a consequence) the employer (Burns 1996, p.166). They are often also the only means of evaluating the degree of success associated with the various aspects of the recruitment and selection process. "The most fundamental and most difficult problem in any selection research program is to obtain satisfactory criterion for measures of performance on the job against which to validate selection procedures" (Thorndike 2000, p. ...read more.

Middle

Broad distinctions have been made between measures of task proficiency in job performance and what is being called 'contextual performance' (Arvey Murphy 1998). Borman Motowidlo (2003) define task performance as the proficiency with which incumbents perform core technical activities that are important for there jobs and contextual performance as extratask proficiency that contributes more to the organisational, social, and psychological environment to help accomplish organisational objectives. Contextual factors include such aspects as persisting with enthusiasm and extra effort, volunteering to carry out duties not formally part of ones job, and endorsing and supporting organisational objectives. Once what construes 'job performance' has been adequately defined, measurement of said performance needs to occur. Human judgement is subject to many errors and supervisors are often forced to make some subjective judgements. There are a wide range of problems associated with these judgements. Subjectivity opens the door to favouritism, where evaluators act on personal preferences to favour some employees over others and use their power to reward preferred subordinates beyond their true value. Prendergast Topel (1996) found that degree of favouritism was dependent on the incentives offered to the worker, with a stronger correlation between incentive pay and the supervisors' report decreasing reporting accuracy. The effects of favouritism are a deemphasising of incentive pay and bureaucratic rules in pay and promotion decisions where little weight is put on supervisor appraisals and other subjective opinions of performance and excess weight placed on noncorruptible measures such as seniority. ...read more.

Conclusion

Weighting of the objectives then occurs by assigning a relative importance to each of the job elements. Various distinct and measurable levels of performance associated with each job objective are established. When the time for evaluation comes around the employee conducts a self-evaluation prior to the evaluation meeting and the discrepancies form the basis of discussion at the meeting. Research into the relative fairness of performance appraisals and rating systems using concepts of due process and procedural justice, (Folger 2002) has resulted in the development of three characteristics of a due-process appraisal system. These incorporate giving 'adequate notice,' employing organisations should publish, distribute, and explain performance evaluation standards and processes, a 'fair hearing,' a formal review meeting in which an employee is informed of his/her evaluation and 'judgement based on evidence,' raters should apply performance standards consistently across employees, without distortion by external pressures, corruption or personal biases. Despite most performance appraisals being subjective there is increasing optimism regarding the use of supervisory ratings and other 'subjective' appraisal instruments and formats and it is generally recognised that such systems do not automatically translate into rater error or bias and often provide cost effective solutions to the measurement of performance. In light of studies suggesting the relative validity of subjective measures of performance perhaps the one area that organisations could act to improve is the training of managers and supervisors in how to effectively conduct such appraisals (Hubbart 1995). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. Pe: Performance Profile Analysis

    It is an exercise which enables a muscle to reach a maximum force in the shortest possible time. The plyometrics training I did during the week were designed to help me increase my power and speed. I did hurdling training, and I put 5 hurdles in 3 sets each, I

  2. Self analysis of football performance - Comparison to elite model

    Execution: The execution of my first touch is highly affected by my starting position. Because I am facing the ball flat footed and forward on I require two further touches; one to knock the ball out of my feet and the other to face my team mate where the ball is going to.

  1. Self analysis of weaknesses in table tennis - Comparison to elite model 2

    outline the stimuli which I need to focus on, therefore it will make me concentrate more on the bat, and not anything else which could be going on around the table. Also doing this will allow me to get to grips of returning serves which contain different spins and speeds.

  2. Analysis of Performance

    important to success in games: Technical Attributes: - Corners - To deliver accurate balls to players to improve chances of scoring. - Crossing - To deliver accurate balls (at pace) to players to improve chances of scoring - Dribbling - To get past defenders and make space for skills.

  1. Critically analyse your own performance in your chosen sport using suitable notational methods. Include ...

    it by doing a thirty-five minute run in the gym * Improve offside shots. This is something that cannot directly be analysed as I can't tell where the bowler has been bowling from my analysis but I can see how the amount of shots on the offside that I play has increased over the period.

  2. Discussion about 'Human Resource Management works well in theory but not in practice.'

    (Armstrong and Murlis, 1991, p442) Similar to the whole HRM, PRP has also been doubt about its effectiveness in practice. And this is what we are going to discuss. Let us start with the determinants of effective PRP systems (see Figure 1.1) * Determinants of Effective PRP Systems Figure 1.1 Determinants of Effective PRP Systems 1.

  1. Performance Management

    Lack in motivation gives poor performance which can be an outcome of poor employee's satisfaction which will results in low retention and low morale of employees with high absence rate. It can be due to low outcome of incentives and lack of appreciation from the higher staff.

  2. Define personality and how personality affects performance

    To be able to do this, you need to consider the individual?s personality traits as well. Interactional view To predict behaviour in a sporting situation, you need to consider how the situation and personality traits link and work together. This is known as the interactional approach to personality and sport behaviour.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work