• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Performance Enhancement essay 2

Extracts from this document...


Ergogenic Aids: Gene Doping The various ways by which performance can be improved are known as Ergogenic Aids. Ergogenic Aids may directly influence the physiological capacity of a particular body system thereby improving performance. They can also remove psychological constraints which impact performance and also increase the speed of recovery from training and competition. Ergogenic aids fall into the following categories: * Mechanical Aids * Pharmacological Aids * Physiological Aids * Nutritional Aids * Psychological Aids Over the years those as sports have become more competitive and have developed rapidly the IOC have updated they list of banned substances and doping methods that generally most sporting governing bodies have accepted. Gene doping is defined by the WADA as "the non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to improve athletic performance". With gene doping, a person's genetic makeup is actually changed by injecting genes into muscle or bone cells, creating proteins that then enter the tissue or blood. ...read more.


Treatment of various sports-related injuries, including muscle injuries, ligament and tendon ruptures, meniscal tears (knee injury) and delayed bone fracture healing is labour intensive and time consuming. Gene therapy using the transfer of defined genes encoding suitable growth factors into the injured tissue may potentially result in improved regeneration of tissue defects. In addition, athletes may be able to use gene therapy to re-engineer their bodies for better performance. Many genes with potential to enhance athletic performance are available. It is approximated that within five years gene doping will be entered into athletics. The most relevant genes are Erythropoietin (EPO), Growth factors, Myostatin and Endorphins. Now athletes may be able to use gene therapy to re-engineer their bodies for better performances in their sports as many genes with potential to enhance athletic performance are available. These genes not only have potential to improve athletic performance of human athletes but also in animal used in sports such as horse racing. ...read more.


Specific health risks Health risks related to the specific proteins expressed in gene doping are similar to those of other doping forms. Healthy people who unnaturally boost their EPO levels increase their chances of stroke and heart attack because adding red blood cells makes the blood thicker. As it gets thicker, it becomes more difficult for the body to pump it successfully to all tissues of the body, causing clots wherever vessels cannot compensate for this increased density. Environmental risks Athletes that would have received gene therapy may have genetically modified cells that contain the gene transfer vector. This may potentially pose a risk for people in close contact with the athlete, because they may be exposed to the gene. Legal status In 2003, WADA decided to include a prohibition of gene doping within their World Anti-Doping Code, which is formalized in its 2004 World Anti-Doping Code. Performer who benefit from its use * Long distance cyclist * Marathon Runners * Long distance runners * Any athlete with an injury ?? ?? ?? ?? Joanna Belgrave Performance Enhancement ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Extrinsic injury risk factors

    that increases blood flow to muscles and makes then more responsive. The length of this warm-up phase will depend upon the ambient temperature (the warmer it is, the less time needed to become warm) and what is going to be done.

  2. A.S Personal exercise program for netball

    If the muscles are working correctly to the exercises performed then the aims of the exercise programme will be achieved. Overload The intensity of the training undergone. The training should be at intensity where the individual feels a discomfort to the working muscle(s).

  1. Physiology Within Sport

    USING GRAPHS, TABLES, EXAMPLES AND PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES TO SUPPORT YOUR ANSWER, ANALYSE THE RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO STEADY-STATE EXERCISE. When the tidal and breathing rates plateaux, this effectively cannot happen until the diffusion rate of oxygen increases and plateaux's. The graph below is what is known as a Dissociation curve,

  2. Exercise health and lifestyle

    A similar pattern of diet and alcohol consumption has also been found in other south European countries where heart disease rates are also lower compared with other parts of the world. Red wine, in particular, also contains flavonoids that act as antioxidants, which help to reduce the build up of

  1. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    Intensity has a say and particularly grueling strength sessions may last as little as 20 - 30 minutes. The principles of training are a vital part of training techniques. Overload is the principle in which the performer increases their training regime by maximising their bearing weight loads.

  2. The purpose of a nutritional assessment is to categorise individuals and evaluate their health, ...

    Waist to hip ratio has been shown to be related to the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. The formula for calculation waist to hip ratio is (waist girth / hip girth) = WHR. To find out someone's waist-to-hip ratio, measure the waist at its narrowest point, and then measure the hips at the widest point.

  1. In this assignment I will prepare a report for aimed at young athletes, explaining ...

    One example of blood doping being used was at the winter Olympics. Six Austrian skiers had all been found to be using to using blood doping in an attempt to improve in the cross country skiing event. The skiers were called Wolfgang Perner and Wolfgang Rottmann and the cross-country skiers

  2. Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Anatomy_artery.png" \o "Anatomy of the arterial wall Pulmonary Artery There are two of these one supplies a lung each to have the de-oxygenated blood re-oxygenated to supply active muscles with oxygen. Aorta This is the largest artery in the body it spans off from the left ventricle; it supplies the

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work