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Performance Enhancement essay 2

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Ergogenic Aids: Gene Doping The various ways by which performance can be improved are known as Ergogenic Aids. Ergogenic Aids may directly influence the physiological capacity of a particular body system thereby improving performance. They can also remove psychological constraints which impact performance and also increase the speed of recovery from training and competition. Ergogenic aids fall into the following categories: * Mechanical Aids * Pharmacological Aids * Physiological Aids * Nutritional Aids * Psychological Aids Over the years those as sports have become more competitive and have developed rapidly the IOC have updated they list of banned substances and doping methods that generally most sporting governing bodies have accepted. Gene doping is defined by the WADA as "the non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to improve athletic performance". With gene doping, a person's genetic makeup is actually changed by injecting genes into muscle or bone cells, creating proteins that then enter the tissue or blood. ...read more.


Treatment of various sports-related injuries, including muscle injuries, ligament and tendon ruptures, meniscal tears (knee injury) and delayed bone fracture healing is labour intensive and time consuming. Gene therapy using the transfer of defined genes encoding suitable growth factors into the injured tissue may potentially result in improved regeneration of tissue defects. In addition, athletes may be able to use gene therapy to re-engineer their bodies for better performance. Many genes with potential to enhance athletic performance are available. It is approximated that within five years gene doping will be entered into athletics. The most relevant genes are Erythropoietin (EPO), Growth factors, Myostatin and Endorphins. Now athletes may be able to use gene therapy to re-engineer their bodies for better performances in their sports as many genes with potential to enhance athletic performance are available. These genes not only have potential to improve athletic performance of human athletes but also in animal used in sports such as horse racing. ...read more.


Specific health risks Health risks related to the specific proteins expressed in gene doping are similar to those of other doping forms. Healthy people who unnaturally boost their EPO levels increase their chances of stroke and heart attack because adding red blood cells makes the blood thicker. As it gets thicker, it becomes more difficult for the body to pump it successfully to all tissues of the body, causing clots wherever vessels cannot compensate for this increased density. Environmental risks Athletes that would have received gene therapy may have genetically modified cells that contain the gene transfer vector. This may potentially pose a risk for people in close contact with the athlete, because they may be exposed to the gene. Legal status In 2003, WADA decided to include a prohibition of gene doping within their World Anti-Doping Code, which is formalized in its 2004 World Anti-Doping Code. Performer who benefit from its use * Long distance cyclist * Marathon Runners * Long distance runners * Any athlete with an injury ?? ?? ?? ?? Joanna Belgrave Performance Enhancement ...read more.

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