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Physiological Factors in Sport & Exercise.

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Introduction

Physiological Factors in Sport & Exercise. In this assignment I will be looking at describing thermoregulation in hot and cold climates. That will be looked at within the first part of the my assignment and then within the second part of the assignment I will be showing an understanding of the effects that altitude and water have upon the physiological functions of the body. Thermoregulation: Heat can be lost through one of the following four reasons: > Radiation > Conduction > Convection > Evaporation Heat can be gained through one of the following four reasons: > Increasing metabolic rate > Increasing radiation > Increasing convection > Increasing conduction The rate of heat loss for radiation, conduction and convection will depend upon the temperature gradient between the individual and the environment. The area through which heat loss can occur and the thermal conductivity co-efficients for each mode of heat loss. Heat is lost threw radiation when taking the following points into consideration: > Temperature gradient > Infrared rays > No physical contacts > At rest: 60% heat loss > Dependant on environmental conditions Heat is lost threw conduction when taking the following points into consideration: > Small amounts of conduction > Transferring of heat from the body to cooler objects Heat ...read more.

Middle

The sweat glands produce sweat only when the body needs to lose more heat. Evaporation of sweat has a cooling effect. The effects on the body in high temperatures include salt loss, heat cramp and moderate and severe dehydration. The effects on the body in low temperatures include cold injury, trench foot, frostbite, wind chill and exposure and hypothermia. All of the above points that happen during high or low temperatures will effect how the body will perform in any situation whether its walking down the street or playing a 90 minute football match in the best league in the world. Salt loss stops the body from being effective and can make the body more at risk to catching diseases or becoming weak and unable to perform well. Heat cramp can cause long and short-term damage to muscles if not treated in the right ways in heat and can also in the long-term cause permanent damage to the muscles and joints. Dehydration on any scale will cause a decrease in performance from the human and will also cause some scale of weakness either in being unable to walk properly or even being able to do simple body functions such as breathing correctly and efficiently. ...read more.

Conclusion

Some people may have different levels of how long their bodies can last in certain climates but the bottom line is that every human is at risk to either of the above conditions. In the second part of this assignment I will be looking at altitude and water and how it affects the physiological functions of the body. I will also be looking at how people acclimatise to certain conditions when training. Effects of high altitude The conditions in high mountains are difficult. They include low levels of oxygen (hypoxia), low atmospheric pressure, low temperature, low humidity, high winds and increased solar radiation. Physiological effects of high altitude: 1. Hypoxia 2. Hyperventilation 3. Changes in lung volume 4. Changes in pulmonary diffusing capacity 5. Changes in number of red blood cells 6. Changes in haemoglobin concentration 7. Changes in cardiac output High altitude stress: 1. Mountain sickness 2. Increased secretion of ADH 3. Redistribution of body fluids Impairment of mental reactions Effects water can have on the body 1. Provides resistance 2. Reduced injury risk 3. Hydrostatic pressure 4. Gives a sense of weightlessness 5. Improves the Cardiovascular system - 34% increase in CO 6. Works harder on the respiratory system - Work of breathing increased by 65% - Vital capacity decreases by 6% - Expiratory reserves decreased - Respiration not challenged ...read more.

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