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Principals of training

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Principals of training Objectives of training programmes Training programmes are created to prepare athletes for competition. It is designed to improve their performance, skill, motor fitness, physical fitness and ability. To do this you need to use these principles of training: Individual response This is dependant on many aspects such as gender, age, and trained/untrained. Progressive overload Progressive overload is where the workload is increased gradually to help with physical modification according to the intensity, duration and type of training undertaken. Recovery Fitness gains are produced during rest periods as well as in training. Only during a subsequent rest intervals prior to the next training session will the benefits be demonstrated. Rest and recovery can take several forms. Aerobic runs and cross training activities such as cycling can allow the body rest if they are not too demanding and different from the normal high intensity training activities. Such work should be performed at a high level well below normal training and competition activity. ...read more.


This is because the homeostatic mechanism readjusts the body's systems to the decreased demands being placed upon it. This is also called regression. Through moderation of training, the training and recovery period are balanced to allow the body a sufficient time for recovery without losing the benefits of training. Over-Training Long periods of intense training with poor and or little recovery will lead to conditions of over-training and or burnout. Physiological indicators of over-training may appear as: * Increased resting heart rate * Rapid unexplained weight loss * Prolonged loss of appetite * Excessive muscle fatigue of soreness * Susceptibility to injury * Frequent colds, infection, allergic reactions * Sleep disturbances * Lack of motivation to train FITT Principles The acronym FITT (frequency, intensity, time (or duration), type) embodies the basic principle of fitness training. How often, how hard, for how long and for what type of training is appropriate or required by the individual to perform more effectively? ...read more.


As resting body temperature rises the rate of chemical reactions increase (catalysis). Warm up should therefore be gradual and initially of low intensity, leading in to the more intense level of the activity. Warming up is all about peak performance preparation, it is there to prepare the athlete mentally as well as physically, and it has immediate effects on the performer. The warm up should be specific to the activity. Cool-down Just as the body needs to prepare for exercise, it also needs to be given the opportunity to readjust to a normal resting state at the end of it. A gradual reduction in intensity of activity after cessation of exercise allows the body systems to recover as efficiently as possible. Cool down should consist of active recovery exercises of decreasing intensity and stretches. As well as a return to a normal resting state, it also allows the following adjustments to take place progressively and safely: * A slow decrease of the cardiovascular and respiratory rates. * A slow decrease of the metabolism. ...read more.

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