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Review the classifications of skills, to include the differences between individual, coactive, and interactive skills.

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Introduction

Review the classifications of skills, to include the differences between individual, coactive, and interactive skills. Many theorists have tried to analyse the range of skills applicable in sport. Different activities require different types of skills as they have different requirements. Skills need to be categorised, so that teachers can adapt their teaching style for different skills. Many things affect skills, for example, whether the movement has a recognisable beginning and end, the effect of the surrounding environment, and the precision of movement. Skills that have common characteristics are grouped together. There are many ways of classifying skills, for example 'Classification continuums'. Continuums are affected by individual interpretation. Skills can be classified on a scale depending on their role. Different classifications are used, depending on the purpose. 'Classification is often seen as a starting point for the planning of teaching strategies and approaches to learning. A combination of methods may be used in order to identify the range of requirements of the skill'. (Advanced PE for Edexcel-2000) The effect of the environment can be measured by continua's. Barbara Knapp (1963) called these open and closed skills. ...read more.

Middle

The movement is usually very precise, and involves high levels of hand and eye co-ordination, an example of where a fine skill is used could be a pass in football, or in a golf drive. It usually involves a high degree of hand/ eye co-ordination. Gross.......................................................................................................Fine (John Honeybourne- 2000) Self-paced and externally paced skills focus on the timing of movements. In a javelin throw, for example, the performer controls the rate at which the skill is executed. This therefore, is a self paced skill. The environment controls an externally paced skill. An opponent, official, time, or a whistle are examples of things that control the rate at which the skill is performed. An example of an externally paced skill is receiving a tennis serve, or a sprint start. S E L F P A C E D Skill category 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (Pacing continuum-Edexcel- Heinemann-2000) E X T P A C E D Discrete, serial, and continuous continuums are concerned with the definition of the beginning, and end of the skill. A discrete skill is a well-defined action. ...read more.

Conclusion

Each of these skills has different performance requirements. Individual and coactive skills are often pre-learned, although this is not possible for interactive skills, as a game situation is never the same. You need to adapt to the environment. Closed..............................................................................................Open Self Externally Paced................................................................................................Paced Discrete...............................................................................................Serial (Profile of skill requirements of a rugby tackle) (Edexcel- Heinemann- pg. 106. Year 2000) This essay has explained how skills are classified into different groups, depending on their characteristics. Due to the many ways of classifying skill, an analytical approach is needed. This is why these continua's exist Frank Galligan et al. said, 'Classification is often seen as a starting point for the planning of teaching strategies and approaches to learning'. I think that continuums are a lot of help to athletes and teachers. The reason for which we classify skills, is to optimise the learning, development and performance of sport. Teaching styles can be adapted for different skills due to these continua's. The teacher may decide to teach a skill in sub routines, for example, a lay up in basketball, as this may optimise the class's performance. The criticism of these continua's can only be that there is room for individual interpretation. For some people, a certain skill could be classified as an open skill, but for some, it could be considered as a closed. ...read more.

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