• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Review the known and potential causes of osteoarthritis of the limb joint(s) and treatments available now or in the future to impede its progress.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Review the known and potential causes of osteoarthritis of the limb joint(s) and treatments available now or in the future to impede its progress. Bones are joined together by joints, which allow varying degrees of movement between the adjacent bone ends; some joints permit considerable movement, others allowing only limited movement. The most important type of joint that permits considerable movement is the synovial joint. A strong joint capsule and an enclosing ligament, assisted by attached muscles and tendons, limit excessive movement at the joint. In joints in which there is only limited movement the bones are joined by a fibrous or cartilaginous tissue. This is the typical joint that will be damaged in osteoarthritis in the limb. Osteoarthritis is also called degenerative joint disease. It is the most common type of joint disease and millions of dollars are spent each year for its treatment. It is characterized by the progressive erosion of articular cartilage. The term osteoarthritis implies a role of inflammation in its pathogenesis, considered to be a disease of cartilage. It is the narrowing of the joint space, which represent the loss of articular cartilage. This in return will increase the thickness of the subchondral bone which forms bone cysts. ...read more.

Middle

(b) The early changes in osteoarthrisis is destruction of articular cartilage, which splits, become eroded and leads to narrowing of the joint space on radiography. There is inflammation and thickening of the joint capule and synovium. (c) With time, there is thickening of subarticular bone caused by constant friction of the two naked bone surfaces, leading to a highly polished bony articular surface. Small cysts develop in the bone beneath the abnormal articular surface causing irregular outgrowths of bone. ( From Stevens and Lowe Pathology 2nd edition) Osteoarthrisis of the limb progresses slowly. Initially people feel discomfort in the limb joint. Usually this symptom would be felt for several years, which gradually gets worse with time, limiting the persons movement of the leg considerably. The onset is graduals with pain, limitations of movement and loss of function. The pain is greatest when the knee joint is used, or immediately after use, and is relieved by rest. Stiffness is less severe than in rheumatoid arthritis, and morning stiffness may not be as severe. As disorganization of the joint progresses crepitus may be felt or heard and joint effusions occur. As movement becomes more limited muscle wasting develops. Sometimes the lead into osteoarthrisis of the limb is due to osteoarthrisis in the hips. ...read more.

Conclusion

In the limb arthrodesis causes significant disability, but even in this site the operation may be indicated in a young patient, with advanced disease in one of these joints, whose occupation is physically heavy. Arthrodesis puts greater stress upon neighboring joints and should rarely be used when multiple joint involvements is present. Hence, two stiff knees would be a major handicap. 3. Replacement arthroplasty is the substitution of an artificial joint for the diseased joint. This is a rapidly developing field of orthopedic surgery which hold great promise. Even the best of artificial joints, however, differ in one important respect from natural ones, in that they have no capacity for repair. For this reason wearing out or mechanical failure is a very real threat which dictates a certain caution in the use of replacement arthroplasty. So far it has been mostly used for management of chronic arthritis, particularly in the elderly and in patients with multiple limb joint disease. In pure reality, there are still no satisfactory means of preventing osteoarthrisis in the limb nor are there any methods of halting its progression. This disease may stabilize for years at any stage but more often is slowly progressive over the remaining years of life. Although there are many attempts to find a possible cure for this increasing disease it has yet been found and so prevention is the best cure to osteoarthrisis of the limb today. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Skeletal System and Joints

    For example a flurry of punches to the face in a professional boxing match would most likely kill a person due to the lack of intergrowths. Slightly Movable Joints These types of joints make up the front of the pelvis and the spine.

  2. A.S Personal exercise program for netball

    The requirements of the athlete should be tailored for, so the better program it will be to suit the athlete. Adaptation The body and mind adapt to training stress by increasing their ability to cope with the stresses. The muscles adapt to the exercise, the greater the benefits available from

  1. Physiology Within Sport

    Kinase PFK PFK Energy Yield 1 2 38 By-products n/a Lactic Acid Water, Carbon Dioxide Duration 10 seconds 3 minutes 20 minutes Intensity HIGH HIGH LOW Sporting Examples 100m sprint 400m hurdles Football Match From reviewing the above table it is evident to see that the Aerobic system produces a

  2. Exercise health and lifestyle

    And it's often hard to get the smell of smoke out. Reduced athletic performance People who smoke usually can't compete with non-smoking people because the physical effects of smoking like rapid heartbeat, decreased circulation, and shortness of breathe which all in turn impair sports performance.

  1. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    The third component in the FITT principle dictates what type or kind of exercise you should choose to achieve the appropriate training response. The best form of exercise to stress the neuromuscular system is resistance training. But resistance training does not necessarily mean lifting weights.

  2. Free essay

    sports nutrition

    When it comes to vitamins, each one has a special role to play. There are two types of vitamins: fat soluble and water soluble. When you eat foods that contain fat-soluble vitamins, the vitamins are stored in the fat tissues in your body and in your liver.

  1. Muscles and Joints.

    Joints are held by ligaments, this make bones stick together so that they cannot be move far apart but it will allow them to bend freely. The tendons are made up of collagen fibres, which are springy. They also join muscles to bones or other parts of the body.

  2. Personal Exercise Program

    The protocol for this test is to firstly mark the highest point that can be reached from a standing position. Chalk is used for the marking as the participant puts it on his/her hand. Secondly the athlete makes sure his/her hands have a suitable amount of chalk on and then

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work