• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Review the known and potential causes of osteoarthritis of the limb joint(s) and treatments available now or in the future to impede its progress.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Review the known and potential causes of osteoarthritis of the limb joint(s) and treatments available now or in the future to impede its progress. Bones are joined together by joints, which allow varying degrees of movement between the adjacent bone ends; some joints permit considerable movement, others allowing only limited movement. The most important type of joint that permits considerable movement is the synovial joint. A strong joint capsule and an enclosing ligament, assisted by attached muscles and tendons, limit excessive movement at the joint. In joints in which there is only limited movement the bones are joined by a fibrous or cartilaginous tissue. This is the typical joint that will be damaged in osteoarthritis in the limb. Osteoarthritis is also called degenerative joint disease. It is the most common type of joint disease and millions of dollars are spent each year for its treatment. It is characterized by the progressive erosion of articular cartilage. The term osteoarthritis implies a role of inflammation in its pathogenesis, considered to be a disease of cartilage. It is the narrowing of the joint space, which represent the loss of articular cartilage. This in return will increase the thickness of the subchondral bone which forms bone cysts. ...read more.

Middle

(b) The early changes in osteoarthrisis is destruction of articular cartilage, which splits, become eroded and leads to narrowing of the joint space on radiography. There is inflammation and thickening of the joint capule and synovium. (c) With time, there is thickening of subarticular bone caused by constant friction of the two naked bone surfaces, leading to a highly polished bony articular surface. Small cysts develop in the bone beneath the abnormal articular surface causing irregular outgrowths of bone. ( From Stevens and Lowe Pathology 2nd edition) Osteoarthrisis of the limb progresses slowly. Initially people feel discomfort in the limb joint. Usually this symptom would be felt for several years, which gradually gets worse with time, limiting the persons movement of the leg considerably. The onset is graduals with pain, limitations of movement and loss of function. The pain is greatest when the knee joint is used, or immediately after use, and is relieved by rest. Stiffness is less severe than in rheumatoid arthritis, and morning stiffness may not be as severe. As disorganization of the joint progresses crepitus may be felt or heard and joint effusions occur. As movement becomes more limited muscle wasting develops. Sometimes the lead into osteoarthrisis of the limb is due to osteoarthrisis in the hips. ...read more.

Conclusion

In the limb arthrodesis causes significant disability, but even in this site the operation may be indicated in a young patient, with advanced disease in one of these joints, whose occupation is physically heavy. Arthrodesis puts greater stress upon neighboring joints and should rarely be used when multiple joint involvements is present. Hence, two stiff knees would be a major handicap. 3. Replacement arthroplasty is the substitution of an artificial joint for the diseased joint. This is a rapidly developing field of orthopedic surgery which hold great promise. Even the best of artificial joints, however, differ in one important respect from natural ones, in that they have no capacity for repair. For this reason wearing out or mechanical failure is a very real threat which dictates a certain caution in the use of replacement arthroplasty. So far it has been mostly used for management of chronic arthritis, particularly in the elderly and in patients with multiple limb joint disease. In pure reality, there are still no satisfactory means of preventing osteoarthrisis in the limb nor are there any methods of halting its progression. This disease may stabilize for years at any stage but more often is slowly progressive over the remaining years of life. Although there are many attempts to find a possible cure for this increasing disease it has yet been found and so prevention is the best cure to osteoarthrisis of the limb today. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Physiology Within Sport

    Kinase PFK PFK Energy Yield 1 2 38 By-products n/a Lactic Acid Water, Carbon Dioxide Duration 10 seconds 3 minutes 20 minutes Intensity HIGH HIGH LOW Sporting Examples 100m sprint 400m hurdles Football Match From reviewing the above table it is evident to see that the Aerobic system produces a

  2. Skeletal System and Joints

    For example a flurry of punches to the face in a professional boxing match would most likely kill a person due to the lack of intergrowths. Slightly Movable Joints These types of joints make up the front of the pelvis and the spine.

  1. Free essay

    sports nutrition

    Foods high in fat are; Butter, Ice cream, Cheese. Chicken fat, Meat fat According to the World Health Organization you should restrict your dietary fat intake to 30% of our calories. Heart Associations suggest 20-30%, while some experts believe that we may actually need as little as 10% of our

  2. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    Section E - Review of Literature(2) Observing my performer, I have analysed their performance and concluded that their major weakness lies within their power. I am going to write a personal exercise program for the duration of six weeks to improve this weakness.

  1. A.S Personal exercise program for netball

    Discussion of personal factors Personal factors also need certain safety requirements. Older trainees need to be more careful when lifting weights. Women, in particular develop osteoporosis more than men which make them prone to fracture. Men are physically stronger than women and so women have to take more care when training.

  2. Exercise health and lifestyle

    Dehydration Dehydration can also be a negative affect as drinking alcohol may seem to quench your first for a bit but in the long run it actually makes you even more dehydrated. This works by the anti-diuretic hormone suppressing and therefore less fluid is absorbed and more excreted.

  1. Muscles and Joints.

    Joints are held by ligaments, this make bones stick together so that they cannot be move far apart but it will allow them to bend freely. The tendons are made up of collagen fibres, which are springy. They also join muscles to bones or other parts of the body.

  2. Personal Exercise Program

    To perform this test the participants must listen to the instructions from the tape/CD and the aim for the individuals are to keep in time with the beep and perform as many sit-ups as possible. The assistant will hold the feet of the performer and make sure no cheating will occur.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work