• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Review the known and potential causes of osteoarthritis of the limb joint(s) and treatments available now or in the future to impede its progress.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Review the known and potential causes of osteoarthritis of the limb joint(s) and treatments available now or in the future to impede its progress. Bones are joined together by joints, which allow varying degrees of movement between the adjacent bone ends; some joints permit considerable movement, others allowing only limited movement. The most important type of joint that permits considerable movement is the synovial joint. A strong joint capsule and an enclosing ligament, assisted by attached muscles and tendons, limit excessive movement at the joint. In joints in which there is only limited movement the bones are joined by a fibrous or cartilaginous tissue. This is the typical joint that will be damaged in osteoarthritis in the limb. Osteoarthritis is also called degenerative joint disease. It is the most common type of joint disease and millions of dollars are spent each year for its treatment. It is characterized by the progressive erosion of articular cartilage. The term osteoarthritis implies a role of inflammation in its pathogenesis, considered to be a disease of cartilage. It is the narrowing of the joint space, which represent the loss of articular cartilage. This in return will increase the thickness of the subchondral bone which forms bone cysts. ...read more.

Middle

(b) The early changes in osteoarthrisis is destruction of articular cartilage, which splits, become eroded and leads to narrowing of the joint space on radiography. There is inflammation and thickening of the joint capule and synovium. (c) With time, there is thickening of subarticular bone caused by constant friction of the two naked bone surfaces, leading to a highly polished bony articular surface. Small cysts develop in the bone beneath the abnormal articular surface causing irregular outgrowths of bone. ( From Stevens and Lowe Pathology 2nd edition) Osteoarthrisis of the limb progresses slowly. Initially people feel discomfort in the limb joint. Usually this symptom would be felt for several years, which gradually gets worse with time, limiting the persons movement of the leg considerably. The onset is graduals with pain, limitations of movement and loss of function. The pain is greatest when the knee joint is used, or immediately after use, and is relieved by rest. Stiffness is less severe than in rheumatoid arthritis, and morning stiffness may not be as severe. As disorganization of the joint progresses crepitus may be felt or heard and joint effusions occur. As movement becomes more limited muscle wasting develops. Sometimes the lead into osteoarthrisis of the limb is due to osteoarthrisis in the hips. ...read more.

Conclusion

In the limb arthrodesis causes significant disability, but even in this site the operation may be indicated in a young patient, with advanced disease in one of these joints, whose occupation is physically heavy. Arthrodesis puts greater stress upon neighboring joints and should rarely be used when multiple joint involvements is present. Hence, two stiff knees would be a major handicap. 3. Replacement arthroplasty is the substitution of an artificial joint for the diseased joint. This is a rapidly developing field of orthopedic surgery which hold great promise. Even the best of artificial joints, however, differ in one important respect from natural ones, in that they have no capacity for repair. For this reason wearing out or mechanical failure is a very real threat which dictates a certain caution in the use of replacement arthroplasty. So far it has been mostly used for management of chronic arthritis, particularly in the elderly and in patients with multiple limb joint disease. In pure reality, there are still no satisfactory means of preventing osteoarthrisis in the limb nor are there any methods of halting its progression. This disease may stabilize for years at any stage but more often is slowly progressive over the remaining years of life. Although there are many attempts to find a possible cure for this increasing disease it has yet been found and so prevention is the best cure to osteoarthrisis of the limb today. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Physiology Within Sport

    EXPLAIN FATIGUE, USING PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES TO SUPPORT YOUR ANSWER. When we put through our bodies through exercise it requires sources within our body to assist in producing ATP, these sources include Phosphocreatine, glucose and glycogen. As discovered in the energy systems we only have enough Phosphocreatine to last for

  2. Skeletal System and Joints

    For example a flurry of punches to the face in a professional boxing match would most likely kill a person due to the lack of intergrowths. Slightly Movable Joints These types of joints make up the front of the pelvis and the spine.

  1. Free essay

    sports nutrition

    while eating to many foods high in fibre will make you have an upset stomach. Week 1 MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURADAY SUNDAY Am Weight training (11-12) Volleyball training (12-1) Weight training (10-11) 1 mile run (10-11) Rugby (10-1)

  2. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    Having a training partner would increase motivation levels. 2 Lack of power in shoulder pass. This affects the distance the ball travels and the precision of the passing. Access to a gym with resistance machines or free weights would enable an improvement in this weakness. Creating a fitness program using the F.I.T.T (1)

  1. Exercise health and lifestyle

    Synovial fluid is the fluid in between joints and acts as a lubricant so they can move more freely. If an athlete takes part in regular sport their bones will have to be used a lot more and this can damage with excessive use.

  2. A.S Personal exercise program for netball

    Static Or Dynamic Stretching. Neck (Lateral) Stretch Neck Gently grasp side of head while reaching behind back with other hand. Tilt head away until a gentle stretch is felt. Repeat to other side. Hold stretch for 30 - 60 seconds.

  1. The effects of Rheumatoid Arthritis on joints.

    In about 20% of Rheumatoid arthritis sufferers the disease develops very rapidly and in most cases this occurs in the twenties or thirties. Most of you will have experienced the feeling that you have to exercise your wrist and wait for the 'click' that puts it back to normal.

  2. Sports Massage Vs Physiotherapy

    In order to become a sports massage therapist, the skills you must have are: * Reading * Math * Writing * Speaking & listening * Computer literacy * Problem-solving & decision-making * Understanding the broader picture * Working with people In addition to these basic skills you need: * A

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work