• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Review the known and potential causes of osteoarthritis of the limb joint(s) and treatments available now or in the future to impede its progress.

Extracts from this document...


Review the known and potential causes of osteoarthritis of the limb joint(s) and treatments available now or in the future to impede its progress. Bones are joined together by joints, which allow varying degrees of movement between the adjacent bone ends; some joints permit considerable movement, others allowing only limited movement. The most important type of joint that permits considerable movement is the synovial joint. A strong joint capsule and an enclosing ligament, assisted by attached muscles and tendons, limit excessive movement at the joint. In joints in which there is only limited movement the bones are joined by a fibrous or cartilaginous tissue. This is the typical joint that will be damaged in osteoarthritis in the limb. Osteoarthritis is also called degenerative joint disease. It is the most common type of joint disease and millions of dollars are spent each year for its treatment. It is characterized by the progressive erosion of articular cartilage. The term osteoarthritis implies a role of inflammation in its pathogenesis, considered to be a disease of cartilage. It is the narrowing of the joint space, which represent the loss of articular cartilage. This in return will increase the thickness of the subchondral bone which forms bone cysts. ...read more.


(b) The early changes in osteoarthrisis is destruction of articular cartilage, which splits, become eroded and leads to narrowing of the joint space on radiography. There is inflammation and thickening of the joint capule and synovium. (c) With time, there is thickening of subarticular bone caused by constant friction of the two naked bone surfaces, leading to a highly polished bony articular surface. Small cysts develop in the bone beneath the abnormal articular surface causing irregular outgrowths of bone. ( From Stevens and Lowe Pathology 2nd edition) Osteoarthrisis of the limb progresses slowly. Initially people feel discomfort in the limb joint. Usually this symptom would be felt for several years, which gradually gets worse with time, limiting the persons movement of the leg considerably. The onset is graduals with pain, limitations of movement and loss of function. The pain is greatest when the knee joint is used, or immediately after use, and is relieved by rest. Stiffness is less severe than in rheumatoid arthritis, and morning stiffness may not be as severe. As disorganization of the joint progresses crepitus may be felt or heard and joint effusions occur. As movement becomes more limited muscle wasting develops. Sometimes the lead into osteoarthrisis of the limb is due to osteoarthrisis in the hips. ...read more.


In the limb arthrodesis causes significant disability, but even in this site the operation may be indicated in a young patient, with advanced disease in one of these joints, whose occupation is physically heavy. Arthrodesis puts greater stress upon neighboring joints and should rarely be used when multiple joint involvements is present. Hence, two stiff knees would be a major handicap. 3. Replacement arthroplasty is the substitution of an artificial joint for the diseased joint. This is a rapidly developing field of orthopedic surgery which hold great promise. Even the best of artificial joints, however, differ in one important respect from natural ones, in that they have no capacity for repair. For this reason wearing out or mechanical failure is a very real threat which dictates a certain caution in the use of replacement arthroplasty. So far it has been mostly used for management of chronic arthritis, particularly in the elderly and in patients with multiple limb joint disease. In pure reality, there are still no satisfactory means of preventing osteoarthrisis in the limb nor are there any methods of halting its progression. This disease may stabilize for years at any stage but more often is slowly progressive over the remaining years of life. Although there are many attempts to find a possible cure for this increasing disease it has yet been found and so prevention is the best cure to osteoarthrisis of the limb today. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Biological Chemicals and Their Role in Sport

    in the glycerol bond with the carbon molecule at the end of each of the 3 fatty acid tails. Fatty acids are the building blocks for fat, they are either saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. (C) Saturated Fatty Acids Saturated Fatty Acid - Within the chain that makes up the fatty acid there is no carbon to carbon double bond.

  2. A.S Personal exercise program for netball

    More power will mean that the ball will be able to travel a further distance and will be able to reach over the opposition. This will allow our team to keep possession and so inevitably gain points through the game.

  1. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    the ground and the other with the heel pointing upwards and slightly to the side. Clear identification of which foot would be placed first was noticeable. The left foot was placed to the ground as the dominant foot and then the toes of the right foot were levelled.

  2. stress management

    However, several study limitations should be considered. The Appreciative Inquiry intervention was part of a two-day off-site leadership event, so the positive results are not solely attributable to the Appreciative Inquiry intervention. Only managers and supervisors attended due to the nature of the event.

  1. Free essay

    sports nutrition

    calories in the form of fat.http://www.annecollins.com/dieting/dietary-fat-needs.htm Water is key for a healthy diet as it helps with carrying nutrients and helps remove waste products from the body's cells and also it helps maintain the body's temperature. Water makes up between 50-60% if a young persons body weight.

  2. Physiology Within Sport

    exercise, therefore throughout this period there is enough time to continuously resynthesise the ATP to create more ATP. ATP-CP Lactic Acid System Aerobic System Aerobic/Anaerobic Anaerobic Anaerobic Aerobic Product used to Resynthesise the ATP Creatine Phosphate Glycogen/Glucose Proteins/ Fats / Carbohydrates Site Of reaction Sarcoplasm Sarcoplasm Mitochondria Controlling Enzyme Creatine

  1. Exercise health and lifestyle

    This makes it easier for the heart to function and more blood gets to muscles, meaning more oxygen is carried to the muscles meaning they can perform for longer. Exercising also help reduce a person's chances of developing high blood pressure, or hypertension.

  2. Personal Exercise Program

    This keeps the heart rate at a moderate level allowing a slightly elevated breathing rate which consequently affects the oxygen intake to increase. This flushes the muscles rid of waste products such as lactic acid via the process of oxidisation.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work