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Skeletal System Anatomy

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Assignment 1 Task 1 The functions of the skeleton are broken down into 5 main parts. Movement: The skeleton has movable levers that muscles are attached to; the muscles then pull onto the levers to move different bones in the body. Protection: The skeleton has certain bones that are made to protect important organs such as the ribs are there to protect the heart and lungs. Shape/Support: The skeleton gives the body its frame work so that it can stay in a certain form and also supports everything that is inside the body. Reproduction: The skeleton has certain bones called long bones that can produce and reproduce red and white blood cells in its bone marrow. Mineral Storage: The bones can store such things as calcium which the body needs to work properly and the bones can also store fat. (Figure 1 Bone Groups) Bones in the body are all divided into 5 different groups dependant on what there main job is, these bones are: Long bones: the long bones are used for reproduction of red and white blood cells and contain bone marrow, they are also work as levers some examples of long bones would be the femur, tibia, fibula and humerus. Short bones: these are shorter than the long bone and don't have bone marrow and are mainly used for movement some examples of these would be the carpals and metacarpals. ...read more.


When the ball is thrown the humerus adducts and the ulna and radius flex bringing the arm back into the body. At the last point of the movement the ball is released and the phalanges extend loosening the grip on the ball. When kicking a ball in football you are using your foot and entire leg the bones used when kicking a ball are the tibia, fibula, femur, phalanges, tarsals and metatarsals. (Figure 4 Appendicular) When you kick a football one leg is left for the support of the body whilst the other one is there to make the contact and put force onto the ball, if right footed the player would put all of the support onto his left leg whilst the right foot is off the ground. The femur in the right leg would extend and then after that the tibia and fibula would follow also extending so that power is hitting the ball from the swing of the leg. Then at the ankle plantar flexion occurs and the foot is brought into the football and the phalanges, tarsals and metatarsals are used to make contact with the ball. You might also use your arms when kicking a ball as they can act to balance the body whilst on one leg, to do this the arms are normally out stretched and raised to shoulder length. When this happens the humerus, ulna and radius are abducted outwards away from the body and this will make it easier to concentrate on kicking the ball and not balancing the body. ...read more.


A sporting example of this joint would be a basket ball player taking a free throw and aiming to get a ball in the basket, to do this he must flex his wrist with the ball balancing in his hand and then push up causing extension at the wrist to get the back spin on the ball for it to hit the back board and go in. Hinge: (Figure 7 Gliding) At this joint the movement works just like a hinge, and allows movement back and forth (flexion and extension) an example of this would be the knee and the elbow. A sporting example of this would be a ten- pin bowler bowling a ball, the arm is brought back into extension to gain the power to put into the ball to hit the skittles and then just before the ball is released the arm comes back into flexion to bring the ball to the ground. Pivot: With this joint it will only allow rotation, and can be found between the atlas and axis in the neck. A sporting example of this would be a footballer putting spin onto a header to make the ball go into a certain place, and to do this he would have to make contact with the ball and his head and then quickly rotate his neck so that the head of the player just swipes the ball putting spin onto it. ...read more.

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