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Skill, Ability & Technique - How To Structure Practices

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Introduction

TASK 1 - Discuss the differences between SKILL, ABILITY and TECHNIQUE and explain how you would structure practices to enhance these components of fitness. 'Skill' may be defined as "the learned ability to bring about pre-determined results with maximum certainty and maximum efficiency" [PE TO 16]. Another way of putting it is "a coordinated act, involving complex movements brought together in a consistent and smooth manner." It's not too easy to agree upon a standard definition. However, most people would find this definition of the concept sufficient: An organized coordinated activity in relation to an object or situation, which involves a whole chain of sensory, central and motor mechanisms. Welford (Advanced PE for EDEXCEL) I will briefly touch on the different types of skills here: - * Cognitive Skills - also known as intellectual skills, these involve thought process. For example, adding up the judges' scores at the end of a diving performance. * Perceptual Skills - these involve interpretation of stimuli. Different people interpret data in a different way. I.e. when shown given data, one may see what another doesn't, and vice versa. Figures 1.1 and 1.2 below show how perceptions affect how we 'see' things sometimes. ...read more.

Middle

'Technique' is quite often confused with skill. Wikipedia's Wikitionary defined it as "a way of accomplishing a task that is not immediately obvious". The relationship between skill, ability and technique can be demonstrated by the following formula: SKILL = ABILITY + TECHNIQUE As technique is something we have to learn, and ability is something we are born with, skill should therefore be what we learn to go with our abilities in order to perform skillfully. If you consider the definitions of skill and ability, you will see that performers at the elite level must have been born with natural abilities and then developed the specific techniques for them to perform the skills at such a high level. STRUCTURING PRACTICES TO ENHANCE THESE COMPONENTS OF FITNESS When teaching a new skill, it is important for the coach to remember that the student has a limited channel capacity and therefore too much or fast information may well cause a system overload. So, depending on the skill, i.e. complex or simple, the coach will have to decide which type of practice is most appropriate. So this brings us to the types of practices. As far as we are concerned here, there are 4 types of practices, which are: * Externally paced skills are those where the skill execution is not totally dictated by the athlete. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Massed Practice Sessions - this involves a continuous session with no breaks in between sections. Aimed at high-level performers who have higher levels of fitness, it's most suited to fixed practice. It allows for the skills to be demonstrated under pressurized conditions where feedback is intrinsic and the athletes can make their own adjustments. An example would be the same as activities as mentioned in the distributed practice, but with no breaks in between each activity. Also, the coach must be sure to give the learner feedback [i.e. positive, negative, extrinsic, intrinsic, terminal, concurrent, Knowledge of Performance (KP), Knowledge of Results (KR)]. The athlete should remember the principles of training: Specificity Progression Overload Reversibility And also, the FITT concept: Frequency Intensity Time Type of activity In conclusion, structuring practices to enhance performance will depend on the skill being taught. Practices need to be set up to allow the skill to be learned in isolation and then the skill must be learned so well that it can be performed under pressure of a game or competition. BIBLIOGRAPHY Advanced PE for EDEXCEL - Frank Galligan, Colin Maskery, Jon Spence, David Howe, Tim Barry, Andy Ruston & Dee Crawford. PE to 16 - Sally Fountain & Linda Goodwin Wikitionary - Wikipedia. (www.wikipedia. ...read more.

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