• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Sport Science - Sport Psychology Task 3

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Psychology Task 3 In this task I aim to report on stress and anxiety and their direct effects on a sporting performance. I will also look at the different theories surrounding arousal and sport as well as describing and explaining the effects. Stress Stress can be defined as the state of physical tension as a result of pressures such as physiological and / or psychological. Stress can be directly related to sport as the nature of the sport itself usually implies environmental factors that affect the performer's mental state. It can be argued that stress is both positive and negative in sport, depending on the sports variables, stress can aid a performance or hinder it. The two types of stress I am going to look at are eustress and distress: Eustress Eustress is sometime known as "good stress" and is gained from certain situations that can apply stress to a performance. This stress leads to positive experience for the player such as self satisfaction and enhanced intrinsic motivation. For example a basketball player taking a penalty shot has the pressures of a time limit and every player on the court watching him. This stress can reinforce the player's concentration and if they make the basket, they are rewarded with accolade from their team members and the self satisfaction of individually scoring point in an otherwise team game. Distress Distress is the negative stress that performers often try to avoid. ...read more.

Middle

It is this ability to conquer the somatic pressures that professional sports look for. * Behavioural effects of stress - the sympathetic nervous system is one of the three parts of the autonomic nervous system, along with the enteric and parasympathetic systems. Its general purpose is to mobilize the body's resources under stress; to induce the flight-or-fight response. In these types of situations, your sympathetic nervous system is called into action - it uses energy - your blood pressure increases, your heart beats faster, and digestion slows down. The parasympathetic responds when you need to rest and digest - therefore working to save energy - your blood pressure decreases, your heart beats slower, and digestion can start. Anxiety "Anxiety is an emotion that arises in response to a perceived but uncertain threat and arises following a period of appraisal and evaluation of coping resources." Anxiety is often associated with being a negative emotional state caused by stress a by product of over arousal. Anxiety can be analysed by two components cognitive and somatic: * Cognitive anxiety - is caused by the expectations of success. For example this will usually occur before a sporting competition. The perceived outcome of the competition by the player or their surrounding environment (coaches, fans etc) can have a direct outcome on the performance. Fear of failing or underperforming, can result in a performer talking themselves into a bad performance. ...read more.

Conclusion

results for a team, manager etc * Standard of competition can affect an athletes performance positively and negatively - poor opposition can lead to an athlete underperforming to their levels, vice versa athletes usually raise their own performance levels when the competition is of a higher standard * Impact of the environmental factors such as track or pitch conditions and weather can affect an athlete's performance mentally * Spectator support - booing and cheering can improve or decline arousal levels depending on how the performer reacts * Ability of coach of support team to motivate It is important for the person to recognize these types of factors and address them through an effective use of managing anxiety skills. Ways to improve arousal levels across a wide range of sports include: Concentration - the ability to link movement and awareness to focus on what you are doing. This can often include looking at "self one and self two". Self one is the instructive mechanisms on how to perform the task and self two is how you execute the task in relation to self one. Mental rehearsal - mentally picturing your performance, the perfect stroke, the perfect shot etc. This helps to elevate your arousal but control this energy towards a clear objective. This requires lots of rehearsal, positive motivation and practice. Relaxation - this is used to help your not become over aroused and can include deep muscle relaxation, music etc, to help control the body's automatic nervous system. Benjamin McGee BTEC Sport ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe arousal, anxiety and stress including their causes. Explain effects on performance. ...

    4 star(s)

    Throughout her career she had won races by going to the front and trying to burn the opposition away, but in the Olympics race this didn't happen, her opponents stayed with and then started to go in front. She then began to lose confidence in herself and gave up around

  2. Personality and Motivation in Sport

    Whereas people with type B personality normally prefer calm and less energetic sports. An example of a type B personality performer is Tiger Woods. Most sports psychologists now not only know that traits exist, but recognise that their effects can be modified by a situation. This is an interactionist approach.

  1. PE coursework Chosen Sport Rugby -working on my weaknesses as a fullback

    use a grubber kick or it does not go to my intended target area, often I over kick the ball and it goes beyond my intended target area. When performing a grubber kick I firstly do not focus on an exact target area to aim my kick at, nor do I steady myself before I kick the ball.

  2. Learning theories in sport

    Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior. Examples: We can find examples of operant conditioning at work all around us, when we are given coursework - people may want to complete the homework to earn a reward from a parent or teacher, or employees finishing projects to receive praise or promotions.

  1. Aim: to plan, perform, monitor and evaluate a 10-week training program for a specific ...

    I also feel I progressed well over the Personal Exercise Programme with the weight training I was doing, and number of repetitions and sets completed, as I was able to adjust both, when I needed to during my weight training.

  2. Using Sport Psychology to Help my Performance in Volleyball.

    Stavrou, N). In this course the eight performance goals were based on achieving a percentage, and that were in direct accordance with Pyke, F statement of using the five point method, Specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-framed. Process goals or as Pyke, f refers to them as specific goals, this

  1. PEP basketball

    to the floor * The feet can be held by a partner * Record the number of sits up completed in 30 seconds My Result - 36 Ratings (number in 30 Secs) Males Females Rating >30 >25 Excellent 26-30 21-25 Good 20-25 15-20 Average 17-19 9-14 Fair <17 <9 Poor

  2. Analysis of My performance In Rugby

    If I were to do some basic sprint training this would gradually build up my fast twitch fibres resulting in me being faster in the long run. Also If I were to do some stretches to increase the suppleness at certain joints e.g.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work