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sports nutrition

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Unit 12: sports nutrition

Plan a diet

Having a balanced diet is key for making our body function at its maximum eating to much of the same food group can be bad for our health so it is important we eat the right amounts of food and equal amounts of it. You need to have a mixture of all seven nutrients;

Carbohydrates

Fats

Proteins

Water

Fibre

Vitamins

Minerals

Having a mixture of all of these will make the body a lot more healthier and reduce the risk of illness and make your body in a healthier state which has its benefits such as better skin, you don’t feel as tired, more energy, keep your weight in constant check and improve your immune system helping fight off illnesses, and it can even help reduce the risk of a number of diseases, including:
Heart disease
Strokes
Cancer
Diabetes
Osteoporosis

Carbohydrates are key in a balanced diet our major source of nutrients and calories. Carbohydrates should provide between 50 and 60 per cent of your calorie intake. Your body needs carbohydrates like a car needs petrol it wouldn’t work without it. There are two types of carbohydrates complex and simple, complex are such foods as potatoes and wheat as they are high in starch these give you more energy in the long run but the body takes longer to break them down, athletes would normally take this the night before a event. Simple carbohydrates are things high in sugar like sweets or sports drinks these types of carbohydrates quickly get into the blood stream to provide the body with energy usually athletes would take this about 1 hour before a event.  Weather it comes in rice wheat or potatoes. All the carbohydrates we eat are broken down into glucose because that is the only way the body can use carbohydrates to make energy.According to the British Nutrition Foundation, the average adult's daily diet meets this target with women getting 47.7 per cent of their daily energy from carbs (203g) and men 48.5 per cent (275g). Eating to much carbohydrates can be bad for us as it makes us put on weight also eating to much can upset the balance of your body's blood sugar level, resulting in unordinary energy and mood levels that leave you feeling irritated and tired. Foods that have high amount of complex carbohydrates are; Bananas, barley,beans, brown rice, chick peas,lentils, nuts,oats ,parsnips ,potatoes ,root vegetables ,sweet corn,wholegrain cereals, wholemeal breads,

Bad carbs are foods that have been “stripped” of all bran, fiber, and nutrients. They have been processed in order to make cooking fast and easy. Examples are white flour, refined sugar, and white rice. They digest so quickly that they cause a high increase in blood sugar, which over time can lead to weight gain.

Good carbs are digested more slowly. This keeps your blood sugar and insulin levels from rising and falling too quickly, helping you get full quicker and feel fuller longer.

 Proteins are also key in a balanced diet because they are building blocks which make up the structures of the body. Also when we eat food our body keeps the protein and uses it to create new cells and repair old ones which we need to grow also proteins are made up of amino acids our body can only make 12amino acids these are called unessential amino acids the other 8 we have to get are essential amino acids from eating animals, animals have all are essential acids in the while plants don’t so vegetarians aren’t really getting the right amino acids into their body. A lack of protein in our diets can result in slow growth, reduced muscle mass, lower immunity, and weaken the heart and respiratory system. Protein gives us the energy to get up and go and keep going. Black beans, navy beans, garbanzos, lentils, and other beans. Nuts like almonds, walnuts and pecans. Soy products like tofu, soymilk, All of these are great sources of protein for vegetarians, other sources of protein for non-vegetarians are meat and fish.

Fibre

Dietary fibre is found in plant foods (fruit, vegetables and whole grains) and is essential for maintaining a healthy digestive system. Fiber helps support a healthy diet by: Helping you feel fuller faster and longer, this can help prevent overeating, Keeping blood sugar levels even, by slowing down digestion and absorption so the glucose (sugar) enters the bloodstream slowly and steadily, Fibre also helps your digestive system to process food and absorb nutrients and Fibre lowers blood cholesterol. Foods high in fibre are; beans, brown rice, fruits with edible seeds, lentils, maize, oats, and pulses. A healthy diet should contain approximately 20 to 30 grams of fiber a day. Foods high in fibre are oats.

Vitamins  

Vitamins are substances that are found in foods we eat. Your body needs them to work properly, so you grow and develop. When it comes to vitamins, each one has a special role to play. There are two types of vitamins: fat soluble and water soluble. When you eat foods that contain fat-soluble vitamins, the vitamins are stored in the fat tissues in your body and in your liver. They wait around in your body fat until your body needs them. Water-soluble vitamins, When you eat foods that have water-soluble vitamins, the vitamins don't get stored as much in your body. Instead, they travel through your bloodstream. Whatever your body doesn't use comes out when you go to the toilet.

Minerals

Minerals help your body grow, develop, and stay healthy. The body uses minerals to perform many different functions from building strong bones to transmitting nerve impulses. Some minerals are even used to make hormones or maintain a normal heartbeat.

Fats Fat is key in our diets it helps with supplying a storage of food for hard time when the body needs it, it converts it back into the sugars ready for use. This is why animals store fat ready to hibernate the fat supply carriers them through the winter. Also it helps with insulating our body meaning it helps us to keep warm. Another vital component of fat is it cushions our organs meaning it helps protect them from damage the fatter you are the less likely a blow to the ribs will damage you.  Foods high in fat are; Butter, Ice cream, Cheese. Chicken fat, Meat fat

According to the World Health Organization you should restrict your dietary fat intake to 30% of our calories. Heart Associations suggest 20-30%, while some experts believe that we may actually need as little as 10% of our calories in the form of fat.http://www.annecollins.com/dieting/dietary-fat-needs.htm

Water is key for a healthy diet as it helps with carrying nutrients and helps remove waste products from the body’s cells and also it helps maintain the body’s temperature. Water makes up between 50-60% if a young persons body weight. A daily fluid requirement is 35-45 ml per kilogram of body weight. For an average 70 kg young player this means drinking between 2.5 and 3.2 litres of water each day.

image05.jpgimage00.png

image06.jpg

image01.png

Food Group

(Athletes intake) (number of serving)

Normal persons intake(number of serving)

Meats/Protein

10

7

Fresh Fruits

4

3

Vegetables

5

4

Fibre

3

2

Fats

6

2

As you can see an athlete needs a lot more dietary foods then a normal person this is because the amount of work they do and they need more nutrients to be able to perform their sport better. The foods that are more important for an athlete such as meat and protein has a lot more servings as athletes need it for muscle growth but foods such as fibre they isn’t to much of a difference as fibre isn’t a key nutrient in a athletes diet. Athletes need a lot more nutrients then a everyday normal person although normal people do need a considerable amount to stay healthy an athlete needs twice as much if an athlete were to carry on eating the same dietary requirements as a normal person they wouldn’t be able to perform at their sport to the best of their ability due to lack of energy and without the right amount of protein their muscles would stay the same size and could even get smaller. Many athletes often take protein shakes as they find it hard to fit all the protein into equal meals, if a everyday person was to drink these protein shakes without exercising all that would happen is they would gain weight. Image one shows the percentages we need to take for each nutrient, the biggest slice of the pie chart is carbohydrates this is because we need them the most, the next slice of the pie chart is fat then followed by protein and vitamins and minerals. Eating to much of one nutrient people think can be good for you but it actually can be bad eating to many high carbohydrate foods will make you put on weight while eating to many foods high in fibre will make you have an upset stomach.



Week 1image02.png

MONDAY

TUESDAY

WEDNESDAY

THURSDAY

FRIDAY

SATURADAY

SUNDAY

Am

Weight training (11-12)

Volleyball training (12-1)

Weight training (10-11)

1 mile run (10-11)

Rugby (10-1)

Pm

Rugby training (6.30-8)

Football match (1-3)

Football (8-9)

Football (2-4)

Calories burned

Am

360

216

360

504

648

Pm

623

576

216

576

Total calories burned plus BMR

360 + 1886= 2246

623 + 1886= 2509

792 + 1886 = 2678

216 + 1886= 2106

360 + 1886=2246

504 + 1886=2306

1224 + 1886=3110

Total calories burned per week

17281

Week 2

MONDAY

TUESDAY

WEDNESDAY

THURSDAY

FRIDAY

SATURADAY

SUNDAY

Am

Weight training (11-12)

Weight training (10-11)

Handball

(8-9)

Rugby (10-1)

Pm

Rugby training (6.30-8)

Football match (1-3)

Football (8-9)

Treadmill, hard effort (4 -5)

Football (2-4)

Calories burned

Am

360

216

360

792

648

Pm

623

576

216

785

576

Total calories burned plus BMR

360 + 1886= 2246

623 + 1886= 2509

792 + 1886 = 2678

216 + 1886= 2106

1145 + 1886=3031

792 + 1886=2678

1224 + 1886=3110

Total calories burned per week

18358

image03.png


All foods in table are average helpings

week 1image04.png

Mon        

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri

Sat

Sun

Breakfast

2 slices wholemeal toast topped with peanut butter and 1 small banana. Plus 1 kiwi fruit. (350kcal)

1 hard boiled egg with 2 slices wholemeal toast topped with low-fat spread. Plus 1 small glass of orange juice and 6 grapes. (389kcal)

4 poached eggs on toast, one banana, 1 cup of orange juice and a yogurt. (432 kcal)

2 Eggs Poached w/toast (352kcal)

1 bowl of cereal with a glass of orange juice and one large banana, 2 whole meal slices of toast  with peanut butter (989kcal)

All day breakfast (608kcal)

1 bowl of cereal with a glass of orange juice and a large banana, 2 slices of wholemeal bread (987kcal)

Snack

Pasta pot (634 kcal)

Protein bar ( 276kcal)

Packet of mixed nuts (193 kcal)

Pasta pot (634 kcal)

Protein bar (276kcal)

Packet of crisps (134kcal)

Protein bar ( 276kcal)

Lunch

French bread with 2 slices ham, salad, Plus 1 small yoghurt.(450kcal)

3 spring onions, 5 cherry tomatoes and 1 green pepper. Red kidney beans, chick peas and fat-free dressing. Serve with salad and 1 wholemeal bread roll.(450kcal)

Grilled chicken and salad sandwich (457kcal)

Sausage roll and a Cornish pasty (189kcal)

Jacket potato with baked beans and cheese (566kcal)

Grilled cheese and ham sandwich (320kcal)

Grilled salmon and salad sandwich (357kcal)

Snack

Fruit loaf (145 kcal)

Packet of mixed nuts (193 kcal)

Isotonic drink (189kcal)

Protein bar ( 306kcal)

Banana smoothie (156kcal)

Packet of mixed nuts (193 kcal)

Protein bar (276kcal)

Protein bar ( 206kcal)

Tea

1 lean loin lamb chop served with 1 jacket potato, vegetables and 1 mint sauce. (500kcal)

Tortilla wraps with mayonnaise and grilled chicken (675kcal)  

Spaghetti Bolognese(684kcal)

Roast chicken with chips and peas (480kcal)

One 10 inch meat feast pizza accompanied   by a salad and chips (897kcal)

chicken tikka mosala with naan bread, chips, mushroom rice and popadoms (789kcal)

Portion of roast beef, Small serving roast potatoes, Small serving mashed potatoes, Large portion broccoli, peas and carrots, 2 small Yorkshire puddings(950kcal)

Mon        

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri

Sat

Sun

Dessert

Sponge pudding (292kcal)

Apple pie (237kcal)

Fruit salad(235kcal)

Cherry cobbler desert (500kcal)

Rhubarb crumble with custard (235 kcal)

Jam roly-poly with custard (394kcal)

Bread and butter pudding (276 kcal)

Supper

Cheerio’s (198Kcal)

Protein shake      (173Kcal)

Cheerio’s (198kcal)

KELLOGG'S, CORN FLAKES With Bananas (108.4kcal)

Protein shake (173kcal)

Kellogg’s raisin  bran (184.6kcal)

Protein shake (173kcal)

Total calories Eaten

2569 kcal

2582 kcal

2743kcal

2650 kcal

3454 kcal

2707 kcal

3225 kcal

Calories needed

2246 kcal

2509 kcal

2678 kcal

2106 kcal

2246 kcal

2306 kcal

3110  kcal


Mon        

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri

Sat

Sun

Breakfast

1 hard boiled egg with 2 slices wholemeal toast topped with low-fat spread. Plus 1 small glass of apple juice and 6 grapes. (389kcal)

Cheerios 100g

Whole milk, average 200g

Orange juice, fresh 100g

Bananas 50g (652kcal)

Frosties 100g

Brown bread, 75g

Lucozade Sport 200g (588kcal)

1 bowl of cereal with a glass of orange juice and a large banana, 2 slices of wholemeal bread (987kcal)

100g of alpen with 200ml of semi-skimmed milk and a banana (455kcal)

2 Eggs Poached w/toast    and a kiwi fruit (352kcal)

Brown bread, 150g

Bran Flakes 150g and a apple  (804kcal)

Snack

Packet of mixed nuts and dried fruit (193 kcal)

Progain 100g (453kcal)

Cashew nuts (140kcal)

Cashew nuts (140kcal)

Protein bar (276kcal)

Packet of mixed nuts  and dried fruit (193 kcal)

Protein bar (276kcal)

Lunch

Mussels, boiled

Mixed vegetables, New potatoes, (273kcal)

Quiche, cheese and egg 200g (628kcal)

Wholegrain bread, Salad cream, Skinless chicken breast (grilled) (696kcal)

Tortilla wraps with mayonnaise and grilled chicken (675kcal)  

Wholegrain bread Mayonnaise, Tuna steak in brine (454kcal)

Croissants 100g

Jam, fruit 25g (452kcal)

Lamb kheema 150g

Pitta bread, white 50g (410kcal)

Snack

Protein bar (276kcal)

Yogurt - low fat 200g (170kcal)

Protein bar (276kcal)

Pasta bake 200g (204kcal)

Hot cross buns 150g (465kcal)

Protein bar (276kcal)

Omelette, cheese 100g (266kcal)

Tea

Salmon fillets, Frozen vegetables New potatoes (641kcal)

Beef stew 300g 387 (kcal)

Cheddar cheese, Baked potato Baked beans  (692 kcal)

Sirloin steak, Baked potato (586kcal)

Spaghetti Bolognese (684kcal)

Steak and kidney pie, Chips, French fries, retail (615kcal)

Portion of roast pork, Small serving roast potatoes, Small serving mashed potatoes, Large portion broccoli, peas and carrots, 2 small Yorkshire puddings(943kcal)

Each meal is accompanied by a glass of water

Dessert

Chocolate nut sundae 150g (417kcal)

Fruit salad(235kcal)

Cherry cobbler desert (500kcal)

Cheesecake, frozen (363kcal)

Rhubarb crumble with custard (235 kcal)

Apple pie (237kcal)

Fruit salad(235kcal)

Supper

Cheerio’s (198Kcal)

Progain 100g (619kcal)

Brazil nuts 75g (511kcal)

Oat So Simple 100g (370kcal)

Progain 150g (679kcal)

KELLOGG'S, CORN FLAKES With Bananas (108.4kcal)

Progain 100g (619kcal)

Total calories Eaten

2387

3114

3399

3325

3248

2734

3535

Calories needed

2246

2509

2678

2106

3031

2678

3110

Week 1

As you can see from this table I have included a lot of protein based meals, this is because protein helps with increasing your muscle size. Eating a lot of protein helps in developing and maintaining muscles. If I don’t have enough protein in my diet and start to go to the gym and exercise to increase my muscle size my muscle wont get bigger and may even get smaller this is because your body will start to use the protein as a source of energy and thus deplete your muscle size.  Protein is broken down into amino acids, and then turned back into protein to produce and repair our muscles after our training session. Having foods which are high in protein like meat and nuts are a really good natural source of it while having protein bars and shakes also helps increasing the amount. Foods that have hidden protein in them are eggs and chick peas and red kidney beans these foods have high amounts of protein in them and you don’t have to eat loads of the foods to get a good amount of protein out of them.  As I am aiming to increase my bulk having a high protein diet will help me a lot. There is also a high amount of carbohydrates in my diet this is because I need a sufficient amount of energy to be able to take part in my gym exercises if I don’t have enough carbohydrates my body will again start using protein as a source of energy. Foods such as bread and pasta I have heavily involved with my diet due to the fact they have a high source of carbohydrates in them.  Foods which I have tried to avoid in my diet are sweets and chocolate as they don’t really have any advantages but they do have plenty of disadvantages. I have chosen to have a lot of protein based foods on Monday and Friday because these two days are my main workout days so I need to have a high amount of protein to help me increase my muscle size, also as I have my weight training early on Friday it is important I have a good and notorious breakfast to set me up for the rest of the day.  1 bowl of cereal with a glass of orange juice and one large banana, 2 whole meal slices of toast with peanut butter (989kcal) as you can see from the breakfast I have chosen it is high in protein which is taken from the peanut butter and high in carbohydrates which is taken form the bread and the bowl of cereal. Having this type of breakfast is a really good base from which to use for the rest of the day. As you can see from the table Sunday I use the most calories this is because I play to competitive sports in one day rugby and football, to make sure I am able to last both of the games I need I high carbohydrate breakfast and lunch but they cant be to filling as I cant play on a bloated stomach.

 1 bowl of cereal with a glass of orange juice and a large banana, 2 slices of wholemeal bread (987kcal) Protein bar (276kcal) Grilled salmon and salad sandwich (357kcal)

This is the breakfast snack and lunch I have for my match day it is high in carbohydrates which I need to help me last the two games. For tea I have to restore all the energy I have lost throughout the day so by having a big roast dinner which is full of carbohydrates from the potatoes and protein from the meat should help me in doing this.  I have had to make sure that my calories for each day is higher then the calories I use, if I do not do this I will not be able to put on significant weight and therefore my muscle size won’t increase.

Week 2

This diet is a lot more protein based then the first week this is because my physical activity has increased meaning I will need more carbohydrates and protein, by adding protein shakes and bars makes it really easy and effective to boost my protein amount. Also I’ve made sure I have a portion of meat each day to help me maintain my protein needs. Also I have tried to provide a bit more variety in week 2 as in week one I was often eating the same types of food. I think if I was going to pick the best diet plan I would say it would be week two although week 1 has more veg and fruit in it week 2 has a lot more protein in it which I need to help me with muscle growth. Also the meals I have picked in week 2 have a lot more calories in them meaning it will help me keep up my energy for all the different exercises I take part in.

Balanced diet

I think my diet programme is a really good balanced diet it has 5 portions of fruit and veg in each day and doesn’t have a high level of sugar or salt. Although the diet is really protein based having to much protein isn’t that bad for you as long as you make sure you’re having the right amounts of the other important nutrients. My diet also has a high amount of fibre which comes from the cereals and the beans and it has a sufficient amount of fat which comes from the all day breakfast and the roast potatoes. Also as I do so much exercise eating this much food shouldn’t make me put on weight as I’m burning it all off. Having a balanced diet can help you in so many ways having the right amount of carbohydrates will help keep up your energy, the right amount of protein will help with muscle and cell growth, the right amount of fat will also help with your energy stores, the right amount of fibre will help you have a healthy digestive system, having the right amount of vitamins and minerals will help with keeping skin healthy and immune systems healthy. And finally the right amount of water in your body will help with your skin and digestive system. Every body should try and have a balanced diet having one can maintain weight and make sure you don’t lose or gain any unnecessary weight, people with eating problems will often eat to much of one food or not enough of one food causing them to lose or gain weight and become unhealthy.

Definition

A diet that contains adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients required for healthy growth and activity
according to
wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

Conclusion

Eating this much protein has really helped my muscles get bigger and by eating a sufficient amount of carbohydrates in my diet it has made sure I have enough energy to complete all my sports I take part in. Making sure I have a higher calorie intake then my usage it important as if I had a lower one I wouldn’t have enough energy to take part in the activities the next day and this will mean I wont be able to work as hard, for example if I had all my energy I might be able to do 30 reps on the bench press but if I only have 50% of my energy needs I might only be able to do 15 which means my muscles wouldn’t have been pushed as far as they can go which therefore means I would have to go in the gym longer to increase my muscle size. Also by having a lot of fibre in my diet such as the nuts of cereals means it adds more bulk to my food meaning I feel full for longer, this will make sure I don’t over eat and have unnecessary snacks. Doing this programme has helped me in putting on weight and muscle and doing this has helped me increase my overall game in rugby.


Name

Date

Title

Type

http://www.helpguide.org/life/healthy_eating_diet.htm

March 09

Balanced diet

Information

www.bodybuilding.com

March 09

Balanced diet

Information

Calorielab.com

March 09

Balanced diet

Information

www.purchon.com/biology/diet.htm

March 09

Balanced diet

Information

www.bbc.co.uk/health/healthy_living/nutrition

March 09

Balanced diet

Information

www.glasgows.co.uk/fsa_interactives/PltLoad

March 09

Balanced diet

Information

www.eatwell.gov.uk/healthydiet/

March 09

Balanced diet

Information

www.thedietplate.com

March 09

Balanced diet

Information

www.homehealth-uk.com/medical/healthybalanceddiet

March 09

Balanced diet

Information

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbohydrate

March 09

Balanced diet

Information

kidshealth.org/kid/stay_healthy/food/carb

March 09

Balanced diet

Information

www.brianmac.co.uk/nutrit.htm

March 09

Balanced diet

Information

www.sugar-bureau.co.uk/energy_zone/carbohydrates

March 09

Balanced diet

Information

www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php

March 09

Balanced diet

Information

Viv jones

March 09

Nutrition

Notes

http://www.eufic.org/upl/1/en/img/Graph01.jpg

March 09

Image 1

Internet photo

openlearn.open.ac.uk

March 09

Image 2

Internet photo

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