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Sports Science

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Introduction

BTEC National Diploma in Sport & Exercise Science Unit 16: BIOMECHANICS Assignment One 'Initiation and Development of Movement' Task 1 - Below is a picture of a Javelin thrower, I am about to discuss the muscle actions, action at the joints, action of the limb segments and the muscle contractile velocity and force. Class Notes In the diagram you can see that the body is working at the right and left wrist, the right and left elbow, the right and left shoulder, the spine, the hips, the right and left knees and the right and left ankles. The muscles actions taking place at the:- The right wrist is in supination because the palm of the hand is facing upwards, the wrist is also extending due to the extensors contracting in a concentric manor while the arm is fully extended so the flexors will relax. The right elbow is also extending, the angle between the radius and ulna becomes closer to 180 degrees, this means that the bicep will eccentrically contract whilst the tricep concentrically contracts making the bicep longer and the tricep longer. The right shoulder is in a phase of horizontal abduction because it is placed out to the side of the body so the deltoid contract concentrically and the pectoralis major contracts eccentrically. The reason the right arm is extended is to get as much angular force into the throw as possible, this is because the more force the javelin thrower can apply then the further the javelin will go. The left wrist is in pronation so the palm of the hand is facing towards the ground, this is means that the extensors and flexors are relaxing because there is no need for them at that particular moment. The left elbow is flexing due to the concentric contraction of the bicep whilst the triceps is in eccentric contraction, the elbow is in extension because the angle of the humerus and radius is decreased. ...read more.

Middle

remains on its toes as the cyclists uses them to lift the pedal back around to create even more force creating even more speed. Task 2 - Below is a diagram of the knee joint, also known as a hinge joint. Class Notes The joint at the knee is called a hinge joint; it is only able to move in one plane which is flexion and extension. There are strong ligaments to prevent sideways movement. These ligaments are known as the cruciate ligaments in between the tibia and the femur, the lateral ligament and the medial collateral ligament. They prevent the knee from moving sideways which restricts the range of movement. The leg is able to flex till it hits the femur as it will not be able to pass through it restricting its range of movement also. When the leg extends is may be able to go just above 180 degrees which is known as hyper extension although this is not generally the case, it is restricted due to the knee itself. The total range of movement depends on the flexibility of the quadriceps and the hamstrings. For example a footballer kicking a ball will contract the hamstrings so a professional footballer will train the hamstrings to get more flexibility to get a more powerful shot. Below is a diagram of the shoulder, this I known as a ball and socket joint. The joint at the shoulder or the ball and socket joint allows the widest range of movement, this is where a rounded head fits into a cup shaped cavity. This allows the shoulder to abduct, adduct, flex, extend, media/lateral rotation and circumduction, the range of movement at the shoulder is far greater than that of the knee. If the pectoralis major and deltoids are more flexible then the range of movement will be greater, although the shoulder is unable to put the arm all the way around the body as the body will get in the way, or it cannot get straight around over the head because the capsular ligament will stop this affecting its range of movement. ...read more.

Conclusion

Although when extending the elbow such as throwing a javelin, the effort is generated by the triceps brachii via its point of insertion on the ulna, this movement involves a 1st class lever. Levers have two main functions which are to increase the resistance that a given effort can move and to increase the speed at which the body moves. First class levers can increase both the effects of the effort and the speed of the body; second class levers can only increase the effect of the effort force and third class levers can be used to increase the speed of a body. A good example of a third class lever in the body is the action of the hamstrings and quadriceps on the knee joint which causes flexion and extension of the lower leg. The extent to which this can increase, depends on the relative lengths of the resistance arm and the effort arm. The resistance arm is the part of the lever between the fulcrum and the resistance; the longer the resistance arm the greater speed can be achieved. The effort arm is the distance between the fulcrum and the effort, the longer the effort arm, the less effort required to move a given resistance. For example a tennis racket is used to increase the length of the effort arm which will increase the force that the tennis ball is struck. Although the optimal length of an implement should be determined by the strength or the person handling it, this is why junior tennis rackets are designed so they are able to control the racket. The relative efficiency of the lever system is expressed as the mechanical advantage which is shown as follow:- MA = Effort arm Resistance Arm We use levers in every sport, for example when we kick a ball in football we will use the leg as a lever, so the longer the leg the further the ball can be kicked. Or when you are in boxing the longer someone's are the harder they are able to punch is this is their main lever. Moments.... ...read more.

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