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Strength coursework.

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Introduction

Strength coursework The common definition of strength is the ability to exert force against a resistance. In most team sports the resistance you are working against is your own body weight, and although you are not using your maximum strength, you do need to keep working for long periods of time. In other activities, such as weightlifting you are applying more force and working to maximum. This type of strength is different to the strength needed for a sprinter to explode from the blocks. This implies that there are different types of strength and these different classifications of strength are specific for different activities. The classifications of strength are: * Maximum strength - This is the greatest force the neuromuscular system is capable of exerting in a single maximum voluntary contraction. Men tend to be able to exert a greater maximum strength than women because they have a larger muscle mass - the greater the cross-sectional area of the muscle, the greater the force that can be generated. Fibre type also affects strength. For example, fast glycolytic fibres are able to produce more force than slow oxidative fibres. Some muscle groups are stronger than others, not only because of their size, but also because of the shape of the muscle. The fusiform muscle shape, for example the biceps allows most movement, the multipennate shape such as the deltoid provides more strength but less movement. Maximum strength: "the greatest force possible in a single maximum contraction." * Elastic strength - This is the ability of the neuromuscular system to overcome resistance with a high speed of contraction. Elastic or explosive strength is essential for any activities involving sprinting, throwing, jumping or hitting and an athlete needs a high percentage of fast glycolytic muscle fibres to perform well. The motor neurones that stimulate fast-twitch muscle fibres have a thicker myelin sheath than those stimulating the slow oxidative fibres, which speeds up the rate of conduction of the stimulus and therefore the speed of contraction. ...read more.

Middle

Where as the goal shooters main objective is to shoot and score. Normally, if a shooter is passing the ball it is within a short distance, i.e. within the semi circle, trying to create an opportunity for either herself or the GA to shoot. Due to the fact that different positions demonstrate significant differences in the performance; training programmes/sessions should be designed specifically to meet the demands of match play and also tailored to individual positional demands within the game. Passing in netball requires a high level of elastic strength and also strength endurance as the throwing action is often powerful and explosive and it is performed at high speed (which increases the pace of the game.) Also you have to be able to have a good level of strength endurance so that you are able to pass the ball successfully even towards the latter of the game. Evaluating strength Before beginning my strength training programme I want to measure my strength so that i am aware of my ability before I try to improve it. This will help me to set my goals, which will enable me to focus on what I want to achieve. My goals must be: S - be specific M - training targets should be measurable A - goals should be adjustable R - goals must be realistic T - training targets must be time based E - goals should be challenging and exciting R - goals should be recorded Testing my strength The easiest way to assess someones maximum strength is to find out the maximum weight that you can lift in a single contraction. Strength endurance can be measured by the sit up test or by any repetitive exercise such as pull ups, squat thrusts or dips that can be performed over 1-2 minutes. Elastic strength or power is an indication of the athlete's anaerobic power or capacity. ...read more.

Conclusion

By doing this I can compare whether I have improved or not. (E.g. dynamometer measuring hand grip; vertical jump, standing broad jump measuring leg strength (power), abdominal and back strength and also the Wingate test.) The effects of strength training Changes that occur within the muscle as a result of strength training are classified as: * Myogenic - changes within the muscle structure * Neuogenic - changes in the connection between the muscle and nerve Strength training results in muscle hypertrophy, an increase in the cross-sectional size of existing fibres. This achieved by increasing: * Number of myofibrils * Sacroplasmic volume * Protein * Supportive connective tissue (ligaments and tendons) * Strength training increases the intramuscular stores such as adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), creatinine phosphate (CP) and glycogen. In women the potentialfor hypertrophy is not as great as for men due to mainly lower levels of testerone in women. * Capillarisation and increase in mitochondria Strength training programmes cause biomechanical changes that occur within the muscle and serve to increase the oxidative capacity of the muscle. Different types of training will result in different types of physiological adaptations to strength training: * Muscle hypertrophy - muscle cell increases in size and increase in the total of protein. * Increased concentrations of ATP and phosphocreatine. This has the effect of maximising the efficiency of the alactic system, readily available for high intensity training. * Increase in glycogen stores within the muscle cell, making anaerobic glycolysis more efficient. * Increase in tolerance to lactic acid enables the athlete to work for longer whilst relying heavily on the lactic acid system. The athlete can tolerate greater levels of lactic acid and is able to remove lactic acid more rapidly, which means that they can recover more quickly. Neural adaptations Improved recruitment and autogenic inhibition. There is also some information to suggest that the coordination of the neural system gets better, improving the synchronisation of motor unit activation. This means not only more motor neurones re activated but that they all contract at the same time, generally improving the efficiency of the muscle action. ...read more.

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