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Strength Training Practical

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Strength Training Practical * What is Strength? Strength is the ability to exert a force against a resistance. There are three types of strength. 1. Maximum Strength: It can be defined as the "greatest force that is possible in a single maximum voluntary contraction." It involves neither speed nor endurance factors. A slow heavy dead lift is a classic example of this kind of strength. Although the majority of athletic events depend upon speed, maximum strength is necessary where great resistance must be overcome (bodyweight) or controlled (throwing implements) and therefore is essential in varying degrees, in athletic events. 2. Elastic Strength: It can be defined as the "ability to overcome a resistance with a fast contraction." Both the contractile and elastic components of the muscle are assisted by reflex contraction in the expression of strength at speed. This ability is relevant to almost every event, and the "explosive" quality is especially necessary in jumping, throwing and sprinting. 3. Strength Endurance: This is the "ability to express force many times over in an endurance environment." It is an important component in events involving lactic anaerobic endurance, and also in activities such as multiple squat thrusts, sit-ups and press-ups. * Types of Muscular Activity: * The three different classifications of strength must be given close attention during training and the planning of training. The different types of muscular activity must also be considered. > Static (Isometric): Involves muscle tensions, which don't result in the muscle changing length. The force expressed by the athlete must be equal to, and balance, the force being expressed. > Dynamic: This takes place when the force expressed by the athlete doesn't equal that imposed by the resistance. Dynamic muscular activity is divided into overcoming (concentric) strength and yielding (eccentric) strength. > Elastic Eccentric: Work in which the resistance is less than the resistance which the athlete can express. > Plastic Eccentric: Work in which the resistance is greater than the athlete's maximum isometric strength at any point in the range of motion. ...read more.

Middle

(Bompa, 2000) * Strength Training Principles: * Exercise Selection and Order: -Use all muscle groups; begin with larger muscles of legs and progress to smaller muscles of torso, arms, etc. * Exercise Frequency: -Three days a week with 48 hours rest between sessions. * Sets: -Do one good set of each exercise. * Resistance: -To develop strength, work the target muscle to fatigue; train 75% of 1 RM. * Reps: -Complete 8-12 reps with 75% of 1RM, 6 seconds a rep: 50-70 seconds of anaerobic work. * Progression: -Increase training resistance b 5% whenever you can complete 12 reps. * Speed: -Moderate to slow exercise speeds are safe and effective. -Do 6 seconds a rep (2 seconds for lifting and 4 seconds for lowering.) * Breathing: -Exhale during lifting movements. -Inhale during lowering movements. * Intensity: -High intensity requires you to fatigue muscles within anaerobic system. (Reduce recovery periods.) * Strength Training Program For Adolescents: Exercises Load % 1RM Number of Reps Number of Sets Rest interval (secs.) Hip Crunch - 8-12 2 30 Overhead Throws - 8-12 2 30 Medicine Ball Sit-Up Throws - 8-12 2 30 Abdominal Sit-Ups Attachable Weights 8-12 2 30 Front Raise Attachable Weights 8-12 2 30 Leg Adductions Attachable Weights 8-12 2 30 Sit-Ups - 8-12 2 30 Floor-Hip Extensions - 8-12 2 30 Triceps Dips - 8-12 2 30 Push Ups - 8-12 2 30 * =(Non-applicable) * Warm-Up: * "A good warm-up should raise the heart rate gradually to the point where it can pump enough oxygenated blood around the body to meet increasing demand from the working muscles. The most efficient way to warm up is also the simplest. Warming up introduces the muscles to the movements that they are about to do. Also co-ordination improves after a few minutes of practice, thereby reducing the risk of injury. An effective warm up should bring on a light sweat, and leave you breathing hard but not gasping for breath." ...read more.

Conclusion

> Partner A tossed the medicine ball toward the chest of partner B. > As partner B catches the ball, he or she rocks toward the floor, then, using the momentum of an upper-body thrust, throws the ball back to partner A. > Return to starting position. > Alternate roles. * Abdominal Sit-Up: > Add Attachable weights to the wrists. > Lie on your back, with your calves resting on the seat of a chair, and your knees and hips supported at a 90degree angle. Gently cup your hands around your back of your neck. > Contract your stomach muscles and raise your head and shoulders slightly of the ground. > Without touching the floor, "crunch" up and down by moving your chest toward, then away from your knees. * Front Raise: > Attach weight to wrists. > Keeping your arms straight but not hyper extended, raise arms until they are parallel with the ground without leaning backward. > Lower the arms without bending them to return to the start. * Cable Adductions: > Fasten an attachable weight to your ankle. > Bring your leg with the attachable weight toward and then across the other leg. > Return to the starting position. * Sit-ups: > Lie on your back with your legs bent and your feet on the floor. > Place your hands behind your head. > Inhale and curl your torso of the floor. > Exhale as you complete the movement. > Return to the starting position without resting your torso on the floor. * Floor Hip Extensions: > Kneel on one leg with your elbows or hands on the floor and your core arms straight. > Tuck your opposite leg under your chest. > Move your tucked leg to the rear until your hip is fully extended. * Triceps Dips: > Place your hands on the edge of a flat bench and rest your feet on another bench. > Assume a torso-leg angle of about 90 degrees. > Inhale and bend your arms. > Straighten your arms to return to the starting point, exhaling as you complete the movement. ...read more.

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