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The body during sport and exercise

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Introduction

The body during exercise and sport. A guide to how your body works. In this booklet you will discover the types of joints and movement, the functions of the skeleton, bone growth, and the major bones. This booklet is designed to help you understand the functions of your body, and how they help you in life as well as sport. It is useful to know and understand your body and how it works. I hope that it will help your understanding of exercises and why they are beneficial to keep you fit and healthy. Contents The Skeletal System 3 Axial and Appendicular 4 Functions of the Skeleton 4 Bones 5 Joints 6 Joints during Sport 8 Bibliography 10 In sport and exercise we have to be able to move our bodies, to run, breath, jump, bend and throw, these are just a few actions that we do that need our bodies to be as they are. Our skeleton is designed to be rigid, yet flexible, so we can do these things and many more ensuring us to perform a wide range of activities and functions. It lets us use the same bones in many different ways, we can walk instead of run, we can skip instead of jump, and itch our nose, instead of just drinking, our body means we can do so many ...read more.

Middle

There are 206 bones in your body when you are an adult, this is a decreased number from the number you had when you were born. As when babies grow up some of their bones fuse together. Bone is made up of different areas, the periosteum, compact bone, cancellous bone, the epiphysis, the epiphyseal plate and bone marrow. The Periosteum is the first layer of the bone; it is a thin layer which contains nerves and blood vessels which feed the bone. The Compact Bone gives bones their rigidity, their hardness, and strength. Cancellous Bone is found in layers, and lies within the Compact Bone, it is not as hard as the Compact Bone, and has a spongy, honeycomb appearance which is tiny pieces of bone called trabeculae. The Bone Marrow is found in the centre of the bone, it is a jelly like substance, and produces red blood cells. The Cancellous Bone in many cases protects the Bone Marrow. Adult bone is made up of 25% water, 30% organic matter and 45% minerals. The growth of bone takes place from birth to adulthood and happens at the epiphyseal plate, the compact bone between the plates lengthens, which causes the bone to lengthen. All through you life old bone is broken down by osteoclasts, and is replaced by new bone formed by osteoblasts, this is a process that takes place every day of your life. ...read more.

Conclusion

Pronation occurs at the wrist, at the condyloid joint. The running in hockey uses the ball and socket joint in the hip, the hinge joint in the knee, and the condyloid joint in the ankle. The most used joint would be the ball and socket; it would have flexion, extension, and also circumduction. The hinge joint would have flexion and extension. In the ankle there is plantar flexion, and dorsiflexion, as well as inversion and eversion of the foot, if stopping to hit the ball. In cycling the leg action, uses the ball and socket, the hinge, and the condyloid joint in the ankle. The ball and socket has extension, flexion, and circumduction. There is flexion and extension happening at the hinge joint and dorsiflextion, Planterflexion, and a very small amount of eversion and inversion. These are just three examples; all the joints are used most, if not all, of the time. I hope you find this booklet interesting and informative, it is useful to know about our bodies and how the work. Remember that if you have persistent pain in any part of your body I suggest getting immediate medical advice, and stop doing anything that might affect the area. If you have any questions ask any member of the team and if we don't already know the answer we will do our best to find out for you. ...read more.

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