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The Body In Action Assignment. Muscles and the effects of exercise.

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Introduction

Back Front Muscular System The muscles we have in our body are divided into three classes of muscles: Cardiac - Cardiac muscles are involuntary and found only in the heart. They are controlled by the lower section of the brain called the medulla oblungata, which controls involuntary action throughout your body. Smooth - Your smooth muscles, like your cardiovascular muscles are involuntary. They make up your internal organs, such as your stomach, throat, small intestine and all others except your heart. Skeletal - The skeletal muscles are the only voluntary muscles of your body, and make up what we call the muscular system. They are all muscles that move your bones and show external movement. Fibre Type Type 1 - These fibres, also called slow twitch or slow oxidative fibres, contain large amounts of myoglobin, many mitochondria and many blood capillaries. Type 1 fibres are red, they split adenosine triphosphate (ATP) at a slow rate, they have a slow contraction velocity, are very resistant to fatigue and have a high capacity to generate ATP by oxidative metabolic processes. These fibres are found in large numbers in the postural muscles of the neck. The sporting event that is best related to type 1 fibres is athletics and the event would be a long distance event. Type 2A - These fibres, also called fast twitch or fast oxidative fibres, contain very large amounts of myoglobin, very many mitochondria and very many blood capillaries. ...read more.

Middle

These muscles can also be seen as helping hands; they focus on the effort of movement by creating a high level of control. By working synergistically, these muscles also reduce the amount of work they need to do, which can improve endurance. Fixator - Fixators are designed to fix or stabilize a joint. For example, when people stand up, Fixator groups at the ankles keep the joints stable so that the ankles will not bend or wobble, causing difficulties with balancing. Fixator groups are also what allow people to isolate movements to a specific joint or area of the body, with the muscle group holding nearby joints in place. Types of Contractions Isometric - This muscle stays the same in length as it works and so no movement occurs. For example, the muscles in the vertebral column contract isometrically to help maintain our posture. Concentric - A concentric contraction is a type of muscle by which the muscles shorten while generating force. Eccentric - An eccentric contraction occurs when a muscle is contracting, and an external force is trying to lengthen the muscle. The classic mechanism for a muscle strain is an eccentric contraction. Sliding Filament Theory The sliding filament theory is the method by which muscles are thought to contract. At a very basic level each muscle fibre is made up of smaller fibres called myofibrils. ...read more.

Conclusion

Analyse D2 The short-term effect of exercise on the muscular system is that lactic acid builds up in the muscles, this happens when there is no oxygen to the muscles, this can lead to cramp. You also tear your muscles when you exercise, the muscle tears and then repairs it with muscle fibres, which will increase the size and mass of the muscle. The long-term effects of exercise are that you have an increased numbers of mitochondria, this means an increase in the rate of energy production. The muscles, bones and ligaments become stronger to help cope with the additional stresses and impact that is put on them. The amount of myoglobin within the skeletal muscle increases, which allows more Oxygen to be stored within the muscle, and transported to the mitochondria. Muscles are capable of storing a larger amount of glycogen for energy, the enzymes involved in energy production become more concentrated and efficient to aid the speed of metabolism. Hypertrophy is a long-term effect of exercise; this is when the muscle cell, increases in size through growth. Extreme hypertrophy may result in the cells splitting to create new ones. Another long-term effect of exercise is the increased strength of tendons; tendons become stronger with regular exercise and this causes them to stretch further than usual. If you have strong tendons they will help prevent strains and any other injuries. In my opinion there are more advantages than disadvantages to regular exercise as it is a fun and healthy way to improve the muscular system. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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