• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Effects of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoporosis has on Exercise and the workings of a Boxing Jab.

Extracts from this document...


The Effects of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoporosis has on Exercise and the workings of a Boxing Jab. Student Name: Craig Boags Module Title: Anatomy Module Code: 4SN005 Contents Page Page Contents Page 2 Introduction 3 Task one 4-6 - Rheumatoid Arthritis 4 - Osteoporosis 6 Task two 8-11 - Boxing jab 8 Conclusion 11 References 12 The Effects of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoporosis has on Exercise and the workings of a Boxing Jab. Introduction The structure and function of the skeleton, joints and muscles is essential to the support and movement of the human body. To create movement in the body, two main systems are used. The first of which is the skeletal system, which protects and supports the body organs and provides a framework the muscles in the body use to cause movement. Secondly, the muscular system, which allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. The muscular system also maintains posture and produces heat. "Just about all movements of the human body are a result of muscle contraction" (Elaine N. Marieb, 1999, page 157) This statement is true, however it is not muscles alone which produce movement as the skeletal and joints play a main part too. ...read more.


Figure 1.2 - Diagram to show comparison of normal and osteoporosis bone. (http://yourmedicalsource.com/library/osteoporosis/OSP_whatis.html) This could truly affect the participation of sport as the bones are constantly taking punishment in most sports and exercises. Physical activities that involve twisting, bending, or high impact can be dangerous for those already diagnosed with low bone density. Sports such as golf, tennis, bowling and aerobics, basketball and jogging may do more harm than good. This is because athletes involved in sports and training where forces applied to the limbs are in excess of 10 times body weight (gymnastics, weightlifting and volleyball) have been found to have higher BMD than those involved in sports where forces are only in the range of 5-10 times body weight, such as endurance running. (www.nof.org) There is general agreement that weight bearing exercise is very helpful in increasing bone density, however this stresses only the lower body. Current research indicates that strength training also can increase bone density, as well as improve balance, mobility and flexibility. It would be best for people to begin strength training long before their bones started to thin. Other factors which contribute to a loss of bone density include smoking, caffeine and inadequate or inappropriate diet. ...read more.


The muscles that will be concentrated on most will be the bicep, brachialis and the triceps around the elbow joint of the initial straightening movement of the jab. In the Elbow joint, as the arm snaps away, the triceps is the agonist and the bicep the antagonist. The triceps origin is proximal 1/3 of posterolateral aspect of the humerus. Its insertion is the olecranon process of the ulna and it gets its blood supply from the posterior humeral circumflex and the profundus branch of the brachial. (W. Wirhed, 1990) Figure 1.7 - Diagram The Fixator is another muscle which contributes to the action of the principal muscle. The Fixators when doing a jab are shown in Figure 1.8 Figure 1.8 - Table to show the Fixators from a boxing jab Fixators Latissimus Dorsi Deltoid Sternocleidomastoid These Fixators are just part of the whole process involved in movement. The skeletal and muscular system work in harmony to produce movement but there is a lot more details which have not been discussed which also contribute to movement such as the brain and nervous system. Movement is an element of our body which we take for granted and a lot of people don't realize that if just one component is not working properly or is diseased then it effects the entire movement. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Free essay

    Body In Action

    This type of cartilage can become calcified with advancing age. Task 2 Describe the muscular system, including all the major muscles, and how muscles move. (P3) The muscular system is composed of specialized cells called muscle fibres. Their predominant function is contractibility.

  2. Looking at the skeletal and muscular system and the use of this system during ...

    For example the hinge joint at the elbow will allow you to do a bicep curl with weights. Saddle Joint- Convex and concave bone surfaces are placed against each other. This allows movement in two places at right angles to each other.

  1. Body in Motion

    There are two chambers in each side being the atrium and ventricle. Haemoglobin in red blood cells absorbs oxygen and carries it to body cells. Cardiac blood vessels linked from the aorta spread over the myocardium which is a special muscle that these chambers are made up of and allows the heart to pump blood, along with the cardiac cycle.

  2. Cardiovascular responses When or before exercising, a number of changes happen within the ...

    (fig 3) Muscle spindles A muscle spindle is a sensory receptor, which is an organ placed within the muscle which primarily detects the changes in length, or the stretch of the muscles. They convey the message of the changes in length and the extent that the muscle is being stretched through the central nervous system the via sensory neurones .

  1. The body's response to exercise- Regular aerobic activity results in a type of cardiac ...

    the level of blood acidity. Carbon dioxide is carried in chemical combination in the blood. In red blood cells, enzymes speed up the reaction of carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid. H2O + CO2 ? H2CO2 Carbonic acid breaks down into hydrogen ions (H+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-).

  2. Skeletal System and Joints

    Freely gliding joints only slide past each other. Carpals and metacarpals allow for a slight curve in the hand this can make a big difference when grabbing an object for example a football when the goal keeper hold the ball before a drop kick it would be hard to hold with out that slight curve in the hand.

  1. Skeletal Systems

    In humans, it is a flat bone, roughly triangular in shape. Humerus (long Bone)-The humerus is a long bone in the arm or fore-legs (animals) that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. On a skeleton, it fits between the scapula and the radius and ulna.

  2. Anatomy For BTEC Sport - bones and muscles.

    Isokinetic ? This type of contraction is when the muscle contracts and gets shorter at a constant speed. Examples of using this contraction in day to day and sporting activities are rare. The best example is breast stroke in swimming, where the water provides a constant and even resistant

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work