• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Joys of Learning

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Joys of Learning Task 1 Learning - The process by which relatively permanent changes occur in behavioral potential as a result of experience. (Anderson) A process that "builds on or modifies understanding, capacities, abilities, attitudes and propensities in the individual." (Inglis, Ling, & Joosten (1999) p. 104-105) Above are two definitions of learning, in general learning is a process where we gain a better understanding or new abilities from experience. There are different learning theories about how we actually gain our knowledge and skill. Cognitive theories Cognitive theories of learning are about thinking and understanding rather than connecting certain stimuli to certain responses. Cognitive theories look at individuals and how they can learn theories. It is sometimes known as insight learning. In cognitive theories we get our information from our surroundings and work out what has happened using our long and short-term memories as well a previous knowledge and general understanding. Gestaltists believe that learning can be explained better if we look at the parts which make up the whole, rather than looking at the parts separately outside the whole experience. (Adopted from Stafford-Brown et al) The Gestalt theory put forward that an individual's perception of stimuli has an affect on their response. If two individuals are exposed to identical stimuli, their reactions to it would be different, depending on their past experiences. ...read more.

Middle

Closed-Loop theory (http://www.longroad.ac.uk/accreditation/subject_physical_education/acquisition_skill/motor_control/loop_theory.htm) The closed loop theory is different, as feedback is available. Closed loop theory is used in sport as when mistakes are made; we can provide feedback on how we made the mistake. Feedback is essential to the learning process; we get the feedback either intrinsically or extrinsically. An example of when we might use feedback during the skill could be a forward role in gymnastics, while the performer is performing the role they will have intrinsic feedback, and they can adjust their position to correct it. Task 3 Fitts and Posner (1967) are two American psychologists who set out the changes and phases that learners pass thought in order to acquire a skill. They proposed that there are three stages to learning a new skill. (Adopted from Stafford-Brown et al p132) 1. Cognitive 2. Associative 3. Autonomous The cognitive stage The Cognitive stage is the understanding of what to do and how they do it. This process relies on mental and cognitive processes. When learning a skill, there are several routines that they will follow in order to grasp the skill to move on the associative stage. A sporting example would be a tennis serve, the person learning would: 1. Position the feet correctly 2. ...read more.

Conclusion

Badminton and tennis- Negative transfer occurs between these two sports of how the shot is played. In badminton the shot is a fairly fine skill, involving a flick of the wrist. Whereas in tennis it is a gross movement using the forearm. Indoor football and outdoor football- Positive transfer occurs between these two activities because they are generally the same game but played in a different environment. The same skills are used so we also see skill to skill transfer. Rugby and basketball- These two sports have zero transfer as the skills from one sport cannot help or effect a skill in the other. But Positive transfer can occur in these two sports are they both involve similar aspects, such as creating space. Also negative transfer could occur as rugby is a contact sport and basketball is non-contact, also the ball can not be passed forward in rugby. But proper explanation of the rules should avoid this. Horse riding are hockey- zero transfer occurs between these two sorts as they have nothing in common. Trampolining are high board diving- Positive transfer will occur between these two sports as they both involve acrobatics. All the skills needed to twist and turn can be positively transfer to one another. BIBIOGRAPHY Wesson, k. Wiggins, N. Thompson, G. Hartigan, S. Sport and PE 2000 hodder and stoughton Stafford-Brown, J. Rea, S. Chance, J. sport and exercise science 2003 hodder and stoughton www.longroad.ac.uk ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. PPP Action plan 2003.

    Take it easy this week as I fell I have accomplished my goals in a sense and wish to conserve energy for the strength etc. Back to training hard, really pushing the weights, I feel this is the last day that I can work on my bench press, thus giving my muscle fibres enough time to repair.

  2. Monitor of experience in rock climbing

    From being taught by working alongside other climbers who have years of experience I have been taught what is and isn't good practice and go out of my way to ensure that I follow these values in my day to day climbing.

  1. Self analysis of weaknesses in table tennis - Comparison to elite model 2

    played from me, making it harder for me to catch the opponent of guard. A game up to 11 only using only forehand pushes; This will increase consistency of the shots this is because I will continually be doing the shot over and over again, therefore meaning that the shot technique will be maintained throughout being played.

  2. Skills, techniques and tactics in futsal and basketball.

    The player approaches the ball at one angle and instead of using the inside of your foot to pass the outside is used. For example if there was a player trying to pass the ball but was being obstructed by two players he could use the outside pass and drive with the ball to dodge them and play the ball.

  1. Different Types of Learning. Everyone has there own way of learning people might have ...

    if they have improved or not. * Infer- let the performers know if they have learned and improved the skills There are a few reasons why we like to evaluate if learning has occurred or not, * To give the students/performers accurate and meaningful feedback on their performances and progression.

  2. Learning theories in sport

    the drive is reduced, at least temporarily. This reduction of drive serves as a reinforcer for learning. Thus learning involves a dynamic interplay between survival drives and their attainment. The bonding of the drive with the goal of the drive was a type of reinforcement, and his theory was a reinforcement theory of learning.

  1. Free essay

    Practical Sports Study (Individual) log Book for Badminton

    * Swing your racket upwards as the shuttle drops in the hitting area. * Unlock your wrist as you contact the shuttle, producing a whip action. * Follow through with your racket in the direction of the shuttle's trajectory. * Push with both legs and move back to your base position.

  2. An Investigation Into The Performance Of A Basketball Player

    Reaches up to full extension on jump before release. Hand behind ball, other hand protecting on release. Ball released softly using fingertips and wrist. Legs/Feet Knees bent and balanced. Doesn't dip jumping knee greatly as takes off meaning moves much faster forwards than upwards, more out of control. Opposite leg pulled up for height on jump.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work