• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Long and Short Term Effects of Exercise

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Identify and explain each of the short and long-term effects that regular exercise can have on the main body systems. Exercise is defined as an activity that requires physical or mental exertion, especially when performed to develop or maintain fitness. During exercise, the cardiovascular system, the breathing system and the muscles work in conjunction with each other in order to perform their tasks more efficiently. A vital process of exercise is respiration and the production of energy. Principally, respiration is the breaking down of oxygen and glucose into carbon dioxide. There are two types of respiration: aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic is the most common form of respiration during regular exercise and requires both oxygen and glucose. Anaerobic respiration takes place when there is a lack of oxygen and lactic acid is formed. During anaerobic exercise the body is working in overdrive, for example sprinting, and breathing becomes much faster as we attempt to inhale more oxygen to support the strenuous exercise. The short-term effects of exercise usually begin before the exercise has even begun. Excitement, anticipation and anxiety all play an important part in preparing the body to cope with the demands of exercise. As a result of these emotions the adrenal gland increases the production of adrenaline hormones, which has a direct effect on the heart by increasing the heart rate and the force with which the heart contracts with each beat. ...read more.

Middle

During exercise there is an increased need for oxygen thus inhalation rates during exercise are increased. The tidal volume, (namely the amount of oxygen taken in during each inspiration,) and the rate of breathing, (the number of breaths taken per minute,) increase as a result of this. The increase between these two figures can be as much as twenty times. Other short-term effects of exercise on the respiratory system can be identified as shortness of breath and rapid breathing. This occurs in order to replace the oxygen in the blood and remove the carbon dioxide, which has built up during exercise, at a more rapid rate than the body is normally used to. Over-exertion during exercise can mean that not enough oxygen is being inspired and a lack of oxygen can cause one to hyperventilate or, as a result of a lack of oxygen reaching the brain, even collapse. An increase in lung capacity and therefore tidal volume is a long-term effect of exercise on the respiratory system. A larger surface area of the lung means that the amount of oxygen consumed per minute is higher. 'The intercostals muscles and the diaphragm become larger and stronger which lets the person perform larger breathing actions.'3 This then allows more oxygen to be taken in and enables the body to dispose of waste products more quickly. ...read more.

Conclusion

There are very few, if any at all, short term effects on the skeletal system from exercise because a person's bones are slowly growing all the time, until roughly the age of thirty-five. However, long term effects of exercise on the bones include an improvement in the condition and strength of one's bones. Regular physical activity benefits our health and fitness wholly and helps us to avoid disease and delay death. Some examples are: risk of osteoporosis and arthritic symptoms. A high blood pressure increases the risk of heart disease, stroke and kidney disease. Regular exercise increases a person's immunity to diseases as more red and white blood cells are produced. It decreases blood pressure, helps keep joints flexible by building muscle to support the joint and delays bone loss. It also widely recognised that regular physical activity increases one's self-esteem and self-confidence. In conclusion, exercise affects the body systems in many different ways, with some effects coinciding with the effects on other systems, i.e. cardio-respiratory endurance. It is important to take into account each individual's personal health, fitness and lifestyle when considering the effects of exercise. For example a young, healthy athlete who eats a balanced diet, does not smoke and trains regularly is going to have a more effective cardiovascular and muscular and respiratory system than a sixty year old obese diabetic who has smoked forty cigarettes a day since the age of sixteen. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Physiology Within Sport

    * Nerve gases used in chemical warfare All of these affect the neuromuscular system by causing a breakdown of acetylcholine after the nerve impulse has been transmitted to the muscle. If an individual suffered from any of these disorders, carrying out any form of steady state exercise would be physically

  2. Identify and justify the key components of fitness.

    And the final phase is performing skill practices to rehearse movement patterns that transfer to the game. The warm up should be done to get your heart working at training rate 75%, this is worked out by maximum heart rate - heart rate of age - resting heart rate.

  1. The purpose of a nutritional assessment is to categorise individuals and evaluate their health, ...

    and if you have eaten before the test. Description Women Men Essential fat 10-13% 2-5% Athletes 14-20% 6-13% Fitness 21-24% 14-18% Average 25-31% 18-24% Obese 32%+ 25%+ Physical Appearance The physical appearance of an individual can provide the initial signs that they may be suffering from some kind of malnutrition.

  2. Cardiovascular responses When or before exercising, a number of changes happen within the ...

    This can lead to blood pooling in the muscles which causes not enough blood going to the brain. This can lead to the athlete feeling nauseous or fainting. P2 Respiratory system The body unexpectedly insensitive to falling levels of oxygen required for exercise.

  1. The body's response to exercise- Regular aerobic activity results in a type of cardiac ...

    The contractions and relaxation of the skeletal muscles force blood through the vessels and returns to the heart. Blood flow Increased energy expenditure from exercise requires adjustment to the blood flow that affects the whole cardiovascular system. Vasodilation During exercise the vascular part of active muscles increases through dilation of

  2. Describe the components of a balanced diet.

    It is present in dairy foods, eggs, meat and vegetables. Magnesium, Mg2+, is an important component of bones and teeth and is also an enzyme activator. It is found in meats and green vegetables. Micronutrients are minerals needed in trace quantities.

  1. Looking at the skeletal and muscular system and the use of this system during ...

    Extension Extension is the opposite of flexion, as it is increasing the angle between two bones. Extension occurs when bending backwards at the trunk, the shoulder movements of the arm or bringing the shoulder backwards, when the arm straightens at the elbow, at the hip when the thigh moves backwards and when straightening the knees.

  2. The Effects of Long Term Exercise On The Body

    within the muscle, which allows it to contract and relax more freely. 5.0 Skeletal System Hyaline cartilage increases to reduce friction between the bones, also mineral contents increases such as collagen and calcium minerals. Also his ligaments will become more flexible and he will become more supple.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work