• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Muscular System

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Muscular System Task One In the human body, there are 21 major muscles. Muscle Movement Example in sport Biceps Flexion and supination of forearm Pull- ups Triceps Extension of forearm Press- ups Deltoids Anterior deltoids: flexion of shoulder, Middle deltoid: abduction of shoulder, posterior deltoid: extension of shoulder Bowling a cricket ball / rounders ball etc. Pectoralis major Horizontal flexion and adduction of shoulder Forehand drive in tennis Rectus abdominus Anterior support to lumbar spine, holds the ribcage and pubis in place, assists forcing air out of lungs Rectus femoris Extension of knee Kicking a ball Vastus lateralis Extension of knee Kicking a ball Vastus medialis Extension of knee Kicking a ball Vastus intermedius Extension of knee Kicking a ball Semimembranosus Flexion of knee Bending knee before kicking a ball Semitendinosus Flexion of knee Bending knee before kicking a ball Biceps femoris Flexion of knee Bending knee before kicking a ball Gastrocnemius Plantar flexion of the ankle and knee flexion Running Soleus Plantar flexion of the ankle and knee flexion Running Tibialis anterior Dorsiflexion of ankle Running Erector ...read more.

Middle

Your skeletal muscles function almost continuously to maintain your posture, making one tiny adjustment after another to keep your body upright. Skeletal muscle is also important for holding your bones in the correct position and prevents your joints from dislocating. Some skeletal muscles in your face are directly attached to your skin. The slightest contraction of one of these muscles changes your facial expression. Smooth muscle: Smooth muscles are around the body in the form of blood vessels, organs and in the eyes. They work automatically without you being aware of them. Smooth muscles are involved in many 'housekeeping' functions of the body. Its functions include blood flow regulation, mixing food in the stomach, pushing urine through the system and dilating the pupils. Cardiac muscle: The heart is made of cardiac muscle. This type of muscle only exists in the heart. Unlike other types of muscle, cardiac muscle never gets tired. It is completely autonomous and works constantly without ever pausing to rest. ...read more.

Conclusion

- Type IIb (Fast twitch glycolytic) - These muscles fatigue quickly, but they are capable of producing higher forces. They have fewer mitochondria, low aerobic enzyme activity and few capillaries. They are a white colour due to poor blood supply. Sports associated: sprinting, weightlifting, high jump. - Type IIa (Fast twitch oxidative glycolytic) - These muscles have similar traits to both Type I and Type IIb fibres. They have more mitochondria than type IIb, higher aerobic enzyme activity than type IIb and denser capillary concentrations. They are a white colour due to poor blood supply. Sports associated: 800m, basketball etc. Fast twitch fibres may be capable of faster and stronger contractions, but are less capable of generating energy through aerobic pathways and are less efficient at utilising ATP and therefore fatigue quickly. Athletes with large proportions of fast twitch fibres are, therefore, more suited to power or short duration events. Slow twitch fibres may be capable of producing energy via the aerobic pathways and are less prone to fatigue, but they are less capable of generating strong or quick muscle contractions. Athletes with large proportions of slow twitch fibres are, therefore, more suited to endurance events. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Skeletal and muscular systems

    plus two articular (joint) surfaces, called epiphyses. They are comprised mostly of compact bone, but are generally thick enough to contain considerable spongy bone and marrow in the hollow centre (the medullary cavity). Flat Flat bones are thin and generally curved, with two parallel layers of compact bones sandwiching a layer of spongy bone.

  2. Btec sport, skeletal system

    Therefore, slow-twitch muscle fibres are used for low-intensity, high-endurance activities, such as long distance running, cyclists and swimming * Red in colour * Contract slowly * Exert less force * Aerobic (long distance running) * Can contract repeatedly * Slow nerve impulse Individuals have a different mix of each muscle fibres.

  1. Skeletal System and Joints

    Two lines beginning small tubercles on the dorsal either side bind it. Carpal bases are cuboid shapes and are broader at the front it articulates with the carpus and on each side with the neighbouring metacarpals; its dorsal and palmar surfaces are both rough so they can attach to tendons and ligaments.

  2. Physiology Within Sport

    is because there are short intervals where the ATP system can resynthesise, therefore each activity depends on the duration and intensity. A group of students carried out a circuit containing Skipping, Press Ups, Interval Sprints, Basketball Free throws and stomach crunches, each lasting 1 minute with a 1 minute interval

  1. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    Leg press 8 4 80 2 minutes abductors 8 4 40 2 minutes adductors 8 4 40 2 minutes Abdominal crunch 8 4 22.5 2 minutes Chest press 8 4 20 2 minutes Seated hamstring curl 8 4 40 2 minutes Dips-pull ups 8 4 Not assisted 2 minutes Triceps

  2. Cardiovascular responses When or before exercising, a number of changes happen within the ...

    The movement of muscles requires ATP, so it follows that the ability of an athlete to move his or her muscles requires ATP. (fig2) ATP The body only stores a small amount of ATP in cells, only enough to power a few seconds (1-4)

  1. Sprained ankle rehabilitation

    Eccentric contractions can now be used. This is where the muscle contracts while lengthening. An activity, which the person with the sprained ankle should do, is, using the same piece of gym equipment as described for using while doing concentric contractions, they should this time lower their body using the ankle and calf muscles giving them an eccentric contraction.

  2. Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ion channels which when stimulated by acetylcholine they open to allow ions to pass through in the muscles. The Brains Role in the Nervous System A part of the brain called the cerebellum is involved with co-ordination of our movement.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work