• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Muscular System

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Muscular System Task One In the human body, there are 21 major muscles. Muscle Movement Example in sport Biceps Flexion and supination of forearm Pull- ups Triceps Extension of forearm Press- ups Deltoids Anterior deltoids: flexion of shoulder, Middle deltoid: abduction of shoulder, posterior deltoid: extension of shoulder Bowling a cricket ball / rounders ball etc. Pectoralis major Horizontal flexion and adduction of shoulder Forehand drive in tennis Rectus abdominus Anterior support to lumbar spine, holds the ribcage and pubis in place, assists forcing air out of lungs Rectus femoris Extension of knee Kicking a ball Vastus lateralis Extension of knee Kicking a ball Vastus medialis Extension of knee Kicking a ball Vastus intermedius Extension of knee Kicking a ball Semimembranosus Flexion of knee Bending knee before kicking a ball Semitendinosus Flexion of knee Bending knee before kicking a ball Biceps femoris Flexion of knee Bending knee before kicking a ball Gastrocnemius Plantar flexion of the ankle and knee flexion Running Soleus Plantar flexion of the ankle and knee flexion Running Tibialis anterior Dorsiflexion of ankle Running Erector ...read more.

Middle

Your skeletal muscles function almost continuously to maintain your posture, making one tiny adjustment after another to keep your body upright. Skeletal muscle is also important for holding your bones in the correct position and prevents your joints from dislocating. Some skeletal muscles in your face are directly attached to your skin. The slightest contraction of one of these muscles changes your facial expression. Smooth muscle: Smooth muscles are around the body in the form of blood vessels, organs and in the eyes. They work automatically without you being aware of them. Smooth muscles are involved in many 'housekeeping' functions of the body. Its functions include blood flow regulation, mixing food in the stomach, pushing urine through the system and dilating the pupils. Cardiac muscle: The heart is made of cardiac muscle. This type of muscle only exists in the heart. Unlike other types of muscle, cardiac muscle never gets tired. It is completely autonomous and works constantly without ever pausing to rest. ...read more.

Conclusion

- Type IIb (Fast twitch glycolytic) - These muscles fatigue quickly, but they are capable of producing higher forces. They have fewer mitochondria, low aerobic enzyme activity and few capillaries. They are a white colour due to poor blood supply. Sports associated: sprinting, weightlifting, high jump. - Type IIa (Fast twitch oxidative glycolytic) - These muscles have similar traits to both Type I and Type IIb fibres. They have more mitochondria than type IIb, higher aerobic enzyme activity than type IIb and denser capillary concentrations. They are a white colour due to poor blood supply. Sports associated: 800m, basketball etc. Fast twitch fibres may be capable of faster and stronger contractions, but are less capable of generating energy through aerobic pathways and are less efficient at utilising ATP and therefore fatigue quickly. Athletes with large proportions of fast twitch fibres are, therefore, more suited to power or short duration events. Slow twitch fibres may be capable of producing energy via the aerobic pathways and are less prone to fatigue, but they are less capable of generating strong or quick muscle contractions. Athletes with large proportions of slow twitch fibres are, therefore, more suited to endurance events. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Skeletal and muscular systems

    plus two articular (joint) surfaces, called epiphyses. They are comprised mostly of compact bone, but are generally thick enough to contain considerable spongy bone and marrow in the hollow centre (the medullary cavity). Flat Flat bones are thin and generally curved, with two parallel layers of compact bones sandwiching a layer of spongy bone.

  2. Btec sport, skeletal system

    Therefore, slow-twitch muscle fibres are used for low-intensity, high-endurance activities, such as long distance running, cyclists and swimming * Red in colour * Contract slowly * Exert less force * Aerobic (long distance running) * Can contract repeatedly * Slow nerve impulse Individuals have a different mix of each muscle fibres.

  1. Skeletal System and Joints

    Gray, 1901 p163). This bone is also very important in day-to-day activities, exercise and sport. The concaved groove for the scaphiod is very important in gripping, as it moves during gripping. It is important for holding a tennis racket for example.

  2. Physiology Within Sport

    the PFK known as Phosphofructikinase which can be activated by reduced levels of Phosphocreatine and high levels of calcium, then the energy released from the breakdown of each molecule of glucose is used to create two separate molecules of ATP.

  1. Sprained ankle rehabilitation

    Eccentric contractions can now be used. This is where the muscle contracts while lengthening. An activity, which the person with the sprained ankle should do, is, using the same piece of gym equipment as described for using while doing concentric contractions, they should this time lower their body using the ankle and calf muscles giving them an eccentric contraction.

  2. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    Warm up routine 5 minutes pulse raiser to get blood pumping round the body and muscles. 5 minutes static stretches to gain maximum movement from muscles starting from head finish at the feet. 5 minutes jogging doing light joint movement I.E.

  1. Cardiovascular responses When or before exercising, a number of changes happen within the ...

    This rise is due to the working muscles and joints making minute ventilation increase. After exercise tidal volume and the frequency of breath returns to normal. Valsalva manoeuvre The valsalva manoeuvre is performed by forcibly exhaling with the mouth closed and nose pinched, forcing air into the middle ear.

  2. Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

    Its purpose is to compare what we are doing with what thought your were going to do and then correct them if needs be, for example when trying to catch a cricket ball you may realise that you are holding your arms to far out and then bring them towards you.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work