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The Muscular System

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Introduction

The Muscular System Task One In the human body, there are 21 major muscles. Muscle Movement Example in sport Biceps Flexion and supination of forearm Pull- ups Triceps Extension of forearm Press- ups Deltoids Anterior deltoids: flexion of shoulder, Middle deltoid: abduction of shoulder, posterior deltoid: extension of shoulder Bowling a cricket ball / rounders ball etc. Pectoralis major Horizontal flexion and adduction of shoulder Forehand drive in tennis Rectus abdominus Anterior support to lumbar spine, holds the ribcage and pubis in place, assists forcing air out of lungs Rectus femoris Extension of knee Kicking a ball Vastus lateralis Extension of knee Kicking a ball Vastus medialis Extension of knee Kicking a ball Vastus intermedius Extension of knee Kicking a ball Semimembranosus Flexion of knee Bending knee before kicking a ball Semitendinosus Flexion of knee Bending knee before kicking a ball Biceps femoris Flexion of knee Bending knee before kicking a ball Gastrocnemius Plantar flexion of the ankle and knee flexion Running Soleus Plantar flexion of the ankle and knee flexion Running Tibialis anterior Dorsiflexion of ankle Running Erector ...read more.

Middle

Your skeletal muscles function almost continuously to maintain your posture, making one tiny adjustment after another to keep your body upright. Skeletal muscle is also important for holding your bones in the correct position and prevents your joints from dislocating. Some skeletal muscles in your face are directly attached to your skin. The slightest contraction of one of these muscles changes your facial expression. Smooth muscle: Smooth muscles are around the body in the form of blood vessels, organs and in the eyes. They work automatically without you being aware of them. Smooth muscles are involved in many 'housekeeping' functions of the body. Its functions include blood flow regulation, mixing food in the stomach, pushing urine through the system and dilating the pupils. Cardiac muscle: The heart is made of cardiac muscle. This type of muscle only exists in the heart. Unlike other types of muscle, cardiac muscle never gets tired. It is completely autonomous and works constantly without ever pausing to rest. ...read more.

Conclusion

- Type IIb (Fast twitch glycolytic) - These muscles fatigue quickly, but they are capable of producing higher forces. They have fewer mitochondria, low aerobic enzyme activity and few capillaries. They are a white colour due to poor blood supply. Sports associated: sprinting, weightlifting, high jump. - Type IIa (Fast twitch oxidative glycolytic) - These muscles have similar traits to both Type I and Type IIb fibres. They have more mitochondria than type IIb, higher aerobic enzyme activity than type IIb and denser capillary concentrations. They are a white colour due to poor blood supply. Sports associated: 800m, basketball etc. Fast twitch fibres may be capable of faster and stronger contractions, but are less capable of generating energy through aerobic pathways and are less efficient at utilising ATP and therefore fatigue quickly. Athletes with large proportions of fast twitch fibres are, therefore, more suited to power or short duration events. Slow twitch fibres may be capable of producing energy via the aerobic pathways and are less prone to fatigue, but they are less capable of generating strong or quick muscle contractions. Athletes with large proportions of slow twitch fibres are, therefore, more suited to endurance events. ...read more.

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