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The Skeletal System

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Introduction

Task One The Skeletal System When looking at the skeleton, we normally look at it in the anatomical position. There are 206 bones in the adult human body. These are some of the main bones: There are 2 divisions that make up the skeletal system. These are the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton consists of the cranium, ribs, sternum and the vertebrae. The appendicular skeleton consists of the upper limbs (arms), lower limbs (legs), pectoral girdle and pelvic girdle. In our everyday life, the skeleton has 5 purposes: - Protection: a rigid structure to protect vital organs on impact. - Support: a rigid structure which tissue attaches onto and keeps the body in shape and upright. - Cell production: bone marrow produces blood cells, mainly red blood cells. - Movement: rigid structure with joints that act as levers and allow us to move. - Mineral reserve: substances such as fats and minerals can be stored within the bones for later use. There are 5 types of bones within the human body. These are: - Long: longer than they are wide. (e.g. the femur and the humerous) ...read more.

Middle

This table shows examples of the three joint categories: JOINT CATEGORY EXAMPLE Synovial Shoulder, hip, knee, elbow, neck, thumb, fingers, wrist Fibrous Cranium Cartilegenous Vertebrae The category of synovial joints has six different types: - Ball and socket: This is a ball and a socket which allow bones to move freely in all directions. Ligaments are often used to keep the joint stable. (e.g. the shoulder and the hip) - Ellipsoid: movement is avaible in two planes, the rounded end of one fits into the hollow end of another. It can move backwards/forwards, side to side, and can rotate. (e.g. in the wrist) - Hinge: Movement in one plane only, which means it will open until it is straight. Movement is limited because of the shape of the bones and the position of kmmmmmmmmkkk ligaments. (e.g. the elbow and the knee) - Pivot: this is two 'discs' on top of each other. Only rotation is possible because it has a 'ring on a peg' structure. (e.g. in the neck) - Saddle: this joint is more versatile than the hinge joint and the gliding joint, it allows movement forwards, backwards and side-to-side. ...read more.

Conclusion

Shoulder/hip Ellipsoid Flexion, extension, adduction, abduction An oval shaped articlular surface fits into a concave oval depression to create an ellipsoid joint. This allows flexion, extension, adduction and abduction, but not rotation. This allows more movement than a hinge joint. Wrist Hinge Flexion, extension A cylindrical bone end fits into a trough shaped surface on another bone end to form a hinge joint. Like a door hinge, this means the range of movement is limited to one plane. This allows less movement than a saddle joint. Knee/Elbow Pivot Rotation The round end of one bone fits into another bones ring, surrounded by a ligament, forming a pivot joint. The second bone is then able to rotate around the axis of the first bone. This allows more movement than a gliding joint. Neck Saddle Flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation Concave areas fit together to form a saddle joint, which then allows movement in a few directions and gives us manual dexterity. This allows more movement than a hinge joint. Thumb Gliding Range of directions, but limited Gliding joints occur between the surfaces of two flat bones. This allows very limited movement in a range of directions. This allows less movement that an ellipsoid joint. Fingers ...read more.

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