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The skeletal system in the body and what it does within the body

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Introduction

This assignment looks at the skeletal system and its contribution to the structure, protection and stability of the body together with different joints and their relationships with ability in sports. http://hes.ucfsd.org/gclaypo/skelweb/skel01.html#what The structure of the skeleton is split into two main groups the Axial skeleton and the Appendicular Skeleton. The Axial skeleton forms the main structure of the skeleton and supports the rest of the skeleton. The Appendicular skeleton consists of the skull, the ribcage, clavicle, pelvis and the vertebral column. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/gray/subjects/subject/30 The vertebral column is made up of 33 vertebrae which can be divided in to 5 different regions: the cervical spine (7 bones), the thoracic spine (12 bones), the Lumbar spine (5 bones), the sacrum (5 bones) and the coccyx (4 bones). The five sacrum bones and the 4 coccyx bones are fused together to form one solid bone. The functions of the spine are protection of the spinal cord, nerve and muscle attachments to send signals to the brain and the rest of the body, to give the body its shape and weight bearing. The vertebrae get slightly bigger as they get lower to distribute the weight evenly among them all. The double S-shape allows the spine to act as a shock absorber. ...read more.

Middle

The synovial joint is subdivided further into movement possibilities; these are decided by how the bony surfaces for the joint. The five types of synovial joints are: The ball and socket joint, this is found in the hip or the shoulder. This joint allows complete freedom in movement. It has more freedom than any other joint. The hinge joint, this is found at the knee or elbow. These joints offer ease in movement but only along one plane. The pivot joint is found at the neck and in the forearms. In the pivot joint one bone spin round on another bone. The condyloid & saddle joint can be found in the thumb. One of these is a concave shape and the other a convex. They move round each other in a flowing movement. And finally gliding joints, these are found in tarsals and carpals. These joint give lots of flexible movements but not much distance in movement. They can move in many directions and rotate. Examples of using these joints in sport would be: Ball and socket joint - the flexion and extension of the leg to kick a ball in football. Hinge joint - the flexion of the knees when a gymnast makes a landing. ...read more.

Conclusion

The different types of joints and their variety of movement therefore are essential for the participation of sports. As there is a wide demand for various, simultaneously movements in sports a wide range of bone types coupled with the appropriate joint movements are essential. Bibliography http://hes.ucfsd.org/gclaypo/skelweb/skel01.html#what http://education.yahoo.com/reference/gray/subjects/subject/30 http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=10323 http://www.teachpe.com/anatomy/types_of_bones.php http://www.ericlarmann.com/Images/pass.jpg 31/10/2011 http://search.babylon.com/?q=basket+ball+shot&s=img&babsrc=home http://search.babylon.com/?q=goalie+save&s=img&babsrc=home http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/joints/gliding_joint.shtml Class PowerPoint. Joints in action Class notes 13/9/2011 Contents Pg 1 introduction and brief skeletal system Pg 2 axial and appendicular skeleton brief (cranium) Pg 3 structure of axial skeleton continued. (Vertebral column) Pg 4 structure of axial skeleton continued. (Thorax) Pg 5 structure of the Appendicular skeleton. (Long bones) Pg 6 structure of the Appendicular skeleton. (Short and Irregular bones) Pg 7 structure of the Appendicular skeleton. (sesamoid bones and structure of a long bone ) Pg 8 classifications of joints. (Fixed joints and slightly movable joints) Pg 9 classifications of joints (synovial joints and synovial sub classes) Pg 10 classifications of joints (synovial joints and synovial sub classes continued) Pg 11 examples of joints in sport. Pg 12 range of movement within synovial joints. Pg 13 range of movement within synovial joints continued. Pg 14 range of movement within synovial joints continued. Pg 15 range of movement within synovial joints continued. Pg 15 conclusion. ...read more.

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