• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19

The skeletal systems relative to Sport and exercise actions

Extracts from this document...


DONCASTER COLLAGE DEPARTMENT OF WELLBEING BTEC NATIONAL AWARD/DIPLOMA IN SPORT AND EXERCISE SCIENCE Sport and Exercise Science Anatomy for sport and exercise - Assignment 1 Student: Robert Foster Date: 06/10/06 Tutor: Sarah Raven The skeletal systems relative to Sport and exercise actions Introduction In this booklet I will be investigating the structure, functions and development of the skeleton and relate the structure of joints to the movement they permit. The Skeleton The human skeleton consists of 206 bones. The human body is born with more bones (about 300), but many fuse together as a child grows up. The bones support the body and allow the body to move. Bones contain a lot of calcium (an element found in milk, broccoli, and other foods). Bones manufacture blood cells and store important minerals. The bones of the Skeleton can be grouped in two divisions: axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton. Axial skeleton The axial skeleton forms the central axis of the body. It consists of the skull, the, ribs the vertebral column and the sternum or breastbone. Skull The skull consists of 28 different bones (including the ear bones). The bones of the skull can be divided into two main groups: the cranium which encloses and protects the brain and the facial bones The cranium (Reference of picture http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Gray_188_-_Side_view_of_the_skull.png) The cranium consists of eight flat bones which are rigidly attached to each other with dentate sutures (joints with teeth-like protrusions). They envelop and protect the brain. The frontal bone forms the forehead and portions of the eye sockets. The occipital bone, at the base of the skull contains a large opening, called the foramen magnum, through which the spinal cord passes. On each side of the opening is the occipital condoyle, two round protuberances were the skull articulates. The organs of hearing are situated in the temporal bone, one on each side. The openings leading into these organs can also be seen on each side. ...read more.


At the other end, the femur widens to form two large knobs which form the hinged knee joint with the main long bone (tibia) of the lower leg. On the front side of these two condyle's, there is an articular surface against which the kneecap (patella) slides. The patella is a small, triangular, flat bone which develops on the tendon of the thigh muscle and is attached by ligaments to the tibia. This enables movement in the knee joint The Lower Leg (Reference of picture http://www.patient.co.uk/showdoc/21692493/..%5Cimages%5CI77_L.JPG) The two bones of the lower leg are the tibia (shinbone) in front and the fibula behind. The tibia is the bigger of the two and extends from the knee to the ankle. The upper end of the tibia has two articulating facets into which the condyle's of the femur fit to form the knee joint. The lower end of the tibia articulates with one of the tassels to form the ankle joint. The fibula is smaller than the tibia and is on the outside also it is slightly behind the tibia. The upper end articulates with the tibia but does not form part of the knee joint. The lower end forms part of the ankle joint. The Ankle (Reference of picture http://www.scoi.com/images/scoi-ankle-main.jpg) There are seven short, thick tarsal bones, the one is the heel bone, which presses firmly onto the ground when a person stands walks or runs. The calf muscles are attached to the calcenum, allowing the heel to be lifted during movement. The Arch of the Foot (Reference of picture http://www.gutenberg.org/files/13910/13910-h/images/fig06-17.png) The arch is formed partly by some of the tassels but mainly by the five long metatarsals, which extends from the tassels to the toes. The arch is modified for receiving the weight of the body. Some people are born with out arches and it is known as flat feet. They usually wear Orthotic Innersoles (Docpods) ...read more.


Type I fibres are red, split ATP at a slow rate, have a slow contraction velocity, very resistant to fatigue and have a high capacity to generate ATP by oxidative metabolic processes. Such fibres are found in large numbers in the postural muscles of the neck Type II A Fibres These fibres, also called fast twitch or fast oxidative fibres, contain very large amounts of myoglobin, very many mitochondria and very many blood capillaries. Type II A fibres are red, have a very high capacity for generating ATP by oxidative metabolic processes, split ATP at a very rapid rate, have a fast contraction velocity and are resistant to fatigue. Such fibres are infrequently found in humans. Type II B Fibres These fibres, also called fast twitch or fast glycolytic fibres, contain a low content of myoglobin, relatively few mitochondria, relatively few blood capillaries and large amounts glycogen. Type II B fibres are white, geared to generate ATP by anaerobic metabolic processes, not able to supply skeletal muscle fibres continuously with sufficient ATP, fatigue easily, split ATP at a fast rate and have a fast contraction velocity. Such fibres are found in large numbers in the muscles of the arms. (Reference used http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/muscle.htm) Sliding filament theory of contraction The mechanism of filament sliding during contraction of a myofibril. In the absence of calcium ions, tropomyosin blocks access to the mysosin binding site of actin. When calcium binds to troponin, the positions of troponin and tropomyosin are altered on the the thin flament and myosin then has access to its binding site on actin. Myosin hydolyzes ATP and undergoes a conformational change into a high-energy state. The head group of myosin binds to actin forming a cross-bridge between the thick and thin filaments. The energy stored by myosin is released, and ADP and inorganic phosphate dissociate from myosin. The resulting relaxation of the myosin molecule entails rotation of the globular head, which induces longitudinal sliding of the filaments. When the calcium level decreases, troponin locks tropomyosin in the blocking position and the thin filament slides back to the resting state. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Skeletal and muscular systems

    It refers to your arms and legs. They are called appendicular because they are attached by girdles, which bridge each with the main body; as if they had been appended after the main body was formed. These girdles give these appendages a remarkable range of movement unique from anywhere else in the body.

  2. What is SALTAPS? First Aid in Sport

    For a head injury, it is also essential to check whether or not the person is able to see properly, by doing simple vision tests with them. P assive. This section of the SALTAPS regime depends on the situation. This is where the assessor moves the injured limb, to clarify the extent of the injury.

  1. Skeletal System and Joints

    The anterior border is concave and thin also rough it gives attachment to the deltoid. It presents at its inner end a tubercle called the deltoid tubercle. (Dr. Gray, 1901 p135-137) The internal portion; part of the clavicle that is prismatic in forms the inner two thirds of the clavicle

  2. Physiology Within Sport

    around 12 breaths per a minute and the average tidal volume is 0.5l however this does heavily depend on age, gender and size of the person. So to calculate the pulmonary ventilation it would look like so: VE = 12 X 0.5 = 6 litres As exercise is begun the

  1. Anatomy for Sport and Exercise - Analysis of movement.

    (AS pe notes) The deltoid (agonist) contracts to abduct the left arm, at the shoulder joint, while the teres major (antagonist) relax to allow movement. The teres major is attached to the scapula and the insertion is at the humerus. Biceps- the origin of the bicep is the scapula and the insertion is the radius.

  2. Anatomy for sports and exercise Task 1The function of a skeleton is to give ...

    We may use our arms to protect most parts of our body. Femur, tibia, tarsal, phalanges and patella make up our lower limb which is known as our leg. We use our leg to walk. Task 2 Joints are based upon their structure and function.

  1. The sacrum is the keystone of the pelvis; Discuss.

    Accompanying the medial sacral artery is the medial sacral vein which ends by joining the left common iliac vein. The greatest importance that the sacrum gives to the pelvis is by means of the sacro-iliac articulations. The sacro-iliac articulations are normally immovable, They may become physiologically movable, in the pregnant

  2. Looking at the skeletal and muscular system and the use of this system during ...

    * Bursae: are little sacs of synovial fluid. * Menisci: are layers of fibro-cartilage located at the articulating surfaces of joints. Here is an example of the components what make up the knee joint: Movement at the Synovial Joints Lots of movement takes place at the Synovial joints these include:

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work