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Theories related to the learning of skills - Use examples from Team, racquet and individual activities to support your answers.

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Introduction

Theories related to the learning of skills. Use examples from Team, racquet and individual activities to support your answers. Task 1.1 Learning theories are trying to explain the various different ways performers acquire skills. There are two main types Associative/Connectivist and Cognitivist. These learning theories are there to help a performer get the best out of the skill that they are trying to improve in a game or individual situation. Associative learning theories This learning theory is concerned with the connection/association of the stimulus-response bond, This is done through conditioning. Conditioning is a form of training which attempts to make certain behaviours habitual. (Habitual means habit. A professional footballer will produce skills without conscious thought (habitual) while someone like me will have to because I'm not as habitual as they are). If this was to happen then this would require a change of behaviour from the performer and so therefore learning occurs when connections are made between the stimulus-response bond. There are two main types in the associative theories. They are Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is when stimulus adaptation takes place. This is when something is added into the performers environment to achieve a desired response. This statement can be put into an equation to make it simpler to understand Unconditioned Stimulus + Conditioned Stimulus = Desired Response. ...read more.

Middle

This means that we seem to be programmed to seek reward or satisfaction. A young goalkeeper is learning how to do a ground kick. The first attempts at the strike of the football (this is the operant behaviour, already learned) are not that successful but sooner or later, perhaps the performers feet were in the right position and he was leaning back correctly and the kick is effective. This will give the performer a good feeling, even more if the coach gives praise and encouragement. This satisfaction acts as a positive reinforcer. It strengths the link between the stimulus-response bond. Negative reinforcement will strengthen the link between the stimulus-response bond but is a little harder to understand. An example of this is if a swimming coach is trying to set up a training programme about how to correctly dive off the blocks, but the swimmers around are anticipating the excitement of the following task and not paying attention. Then the coach will ask them to be quite (desired response). He will stop talking or demonstrating, and will say "Until you stand still and listen to what we are going to do we will not proceed. This is your diving time you're wasting" This is the negative reinforcement, not allowing the coaching session to continue. ...read more.

Conclusion

This will become more complex and stylish as the learner becomes more skilful. A group of psychologists (Koehler, Koffka and Lewin) known as the Gestaltists proposed two principles of learning, they are: * "Learning can be accelerated by using `insight` or `intuition` to solve a problem. E.g. a gymnast and her coach might want to link two moves together in a floor sequences but are not sure how to do it. The gymnast may experiment with several ideas, which help to clarify the problems and possibilities and might then suddenly say `I know how about...` and produce the movement solution, a movement of insight. * Learning is the most effective when a problem is seen as a whole or when the whole pattern of a movement can be practised. This enables the learner to understand all issues and relationships, which need to be considered. Gestaltists therefore advocate that learners practise a tennis serve as a whole, without breaking it down into parts" Davis et al "Physical Education and the study of sport" Forth Edition. A coach can use this then next time it comes to a training session , this is because it will help the performer become better experienced from game situations and passed experiences. This will also help the performer understand the coach a little better in future training sessions, and also this will make them more aware of the why, what and when instead of just how. ...read more.

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