• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Theories related to the learning of skills - Use examples from Team, racquet and individual activities to support your answers.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Theories related to the learning of skills. Use examples from Team, racquet and individual activities to support your answers. Task 1.1 Learning theories are trying to explain the various different ways performers acquire skills. There are two main types Associative/Connectivist and Cognitivist. These learning theories are there to help a performer get the best out of the skill that they are trying to improve in a game or individual situation. Associative learning theories This learning theory is concerned with the connection/association of the stimulus-response bond, This is done through conditioning. Conditioning is a form of training which attempts to make certain behaviours habitual. (Habitual means habit. A professional footballer will produce skills without conscious thought (habitual) while someone like me will have to because I'm not as habitual as they are). If this was to happen then this would require a change of behaviour from the performer and so therefore learning occurs when connections are made between the stimulus-response bond. There are two main types in the associative theories. They are Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is when stimulus adaptation takes place. This is when something is added into the performers environment to achieve a desired response. This statement can be put into an equation to make it simpler to understand Unconditioned Stimulus + Conditioned Stimulus = Desired Response. ...read more.

Middle

This means that we seem to be programmed to seek reward or satisfaction. A young goalkeeper is learning how to do a ground kick. The first attempts at the strike of the football (this is the operant behaviour, already learned) are not that successful but sooner or later, perhaps the performers feet were in the right position and he was leaning back correctly and the kick is effective. This will give the performer a good feeling, even more if the coach gives praise and encouragement. This satisfaction acts as a positive reinforcer. It strengths the link between the stimulus-response bond. Negative reinforcement will strengthen the link between the stimulus-response bond but is a little harder to understand. An example of this is if a swimming coach is trying to set up a training programme about how to correctly dive off the blocks, but the swimmers around are anticipating the excitement of the following task and not paying attention. Then the coach will ask them to be quite (desired response). He will stop talking or demonstrating, and will say "Until you stand still and listen to what we are going to do we will not proceed. This is your diving time you're wasting" This is the negative reinforcement, not allowing the coaching session to continue. ...read more.

Conclusion

This will become more complex and stylish as the learner becomes more skilful. A group of psychologists (Koehler, Koffka and Lewin) known as the Gestaltists proposed two principles of learning, they are: * "Learning can be accelerated by using `insight` or `intuition` to solve a problem. E.g. a gymnast and her coach might want to link two moves together in a floor sequences but are not sure how to do it. The gymnast may experiment with several ideas, which help to clarify the problems and possibilities and might then suddenly say `I know how about...` and produce the movement solution, a movement of insight. * Learning is the most effective when a problem is seen as a whole or when the whole pattern of a movement can be practised. This enables the learner to understand all issues and relationships, which need to be considered. Gestaltists therefore advocate that learners practise a tennis serve as a whole, without breaking it down into parts" Davis et al "Physical Education and the study of sport" Forth Edition. A coach can use this then next time it comes to a training session , this is because it will help the performer become better experienced from game situations and passed experiences. This will also help the performer understand the coach a little better in future training sessions, and also this will make them more aware of the why, what and when instead of just how. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Contemporary Studies section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Contemporary Studies essays

  1. Coaches always give performers opportunities to develop their range of skills. Sir Alex and ...

    Pro coaches have all week long to go through what they want to cover so they can spend more time on certain things and get through what they want thoroughly. Many coaches moan because they feel they do not get enough time with their teams or performers to achieve the desired outcome.

  2. Structure of P.E. The structure and implantation of the physical education curriculum consist ...

    swim 10m, 25m 50m etc. the ASA is sponsored by Kellogg's. At key stage 1 & 2 children can also take their trampoline and gymnastic grades. Most mainstream school aged children start on grade 3. The award schemes comprise 10 levels or grades.

  1. principles of coaching.Describe the roles, skills and techniques used by two successful coaches

    Democratic style of coaching should be used. Espanyol - Luis Garcia Luis Garcia should be given extra responsibilities e.g. penalty taking responsibilities, corners, free kick etc. Democratic and laissez faire styles of coaching should be used. Comparison Making Peter Dagnall and Freddie Eastwood will make them feel more needed by

  2. Coaching Session Evaluation.

    a single attacker in exercise 1, however making it more difficult to observe the progression of each participant's development.

  1. UNIT 13 : PRINCIPLES OF COACHING

    They need to be fully aware of their responsibilities. Everyone is governed by the laws that we live in, and these rules apply whether we are playing in a park or behind a local pub. In order to maintain fair play in competitive sport, coaches and performers are to keep to the rules and laws of their specific sport.

  2. A competent coach has many qualities and should be able to cater for the ...

    and finally probably the least used Laise Faire (which is where the coaching gives an idea or point and the athlete goes off and learns for himself. The autocratic style can be broken into two types - telling and selling and the democratic style into sharing and allowing.

  1. In this assignment I am going to identify, describe and analyse some of the ...

    the players to a high standard so that then are able to last the full game. If they are not used to training very much and they go and play a full game then their muscles become over used because the body can not cope with the pressure that is being put upon it and it results in an injury.

  2. Starting a Football Team.

    I've never been so skint; surely, that's it? Er, well, not necessarily! How serious are your team about this football thing? If you want to keep fit, time to dip in again. Running around a field becomes monotonous, not to mention cold and damp and dark during winter.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work