• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Types and causes of aggressive behaviour in sport

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Transfer-Encoding: chunked Types and causes of aggressive behaviour Aggression-⯠is the intent to harm, outside the rules of the game and is often prompted by reactive behaviour that is out of control.â¯In an sports article, Aggression is defined as “any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming of injuring another live being who is motivated to avoid such treatment” (Baron & Richardson, 1994) 1 It is generally seen as something that is negative and associated with anger. Gills criteria for aggressive behavior: “Aggression is behavior with a goal of harming of injuring another being motivated to avoid such treatment. There are three types of aggressive behavior, hostile and instrumental aggression, plus assertion. We have Gills criteria for aggression, plus the causes of aggression; instinct theory, frustration-aggression theory and social learning theory. Assertion- Many sports psychologists see aggression as assertion. Assertion can be defined as being within the rules of the game and is well-motivated behaviour this is more in control, and there is no intention to harm the opponent. In sport the distinction between aggression and assertion can be seen according to Silva 1983 as either : hostile aggression, the intent being to cause harm and instrumental aggression (assertion) such as a hard yet fair tackle during a game of rugby. The goal in the latter is to get the ball back not intention to cause harm to the other player.2 Most people view aggression as a negative psychological characteristic, however some sport psychologists agree that aggression can improve performance (Widmeyer & Birch, 1984). This is called an assertive behaviour (Bredemeier, 1994), where a player will play within the rules of the sport at a very high intensity, but will have no intention to harm an opponent. Assertive: behaviour links to three main criteria: Is goal directed Not intended to harm or injure Does not break any rules of the game Examples: Goal Directed: An example to demonstrate this type of behaviour is a goalkeeper in soccer. ...read more.

Middle

In sport setting, arousal is often linked to anxiety. Anxiety is percieved as a negative emotional state with feelings of worry, nervousness this is linked with the arousal and the nervous system. In general, arousal has two kinds of effects on performance. First, it increases muscle tension and affects co-ordination. Too much tension is negative on performance. Second, arousal affects attention. Therefore, attention can become either too narrow with too much arousal, or too broad with too little arousal which makes person to pay too much attention to their environment. There are several theories as to how arousal affects performance: The Drive Theory : Drive theory states a linear positive corollation between arousal and performance. This means that at low levels of arousal, performance is low whereas it increases in line with an increase in arousal. Drive theory became popular during the 1950s as a way to explain behavior and motivation The drive theory of arousal is the link between performance levels and arousal levels. This means that an increased/decreased arousal is exactly proportional to the increase/decrease in the level of the athletes overall performance. So bascailly Drive theory states how good you are e.g. beginner or expert is triggered by your level of arousal. Christiano Ronaldo is a professional footballer. According to the drive theory the more aroused Ronaldo become the better he will play Ronaldo's performances is known as his dominant response, which is how he usually plays, normally at a high standard, Ronaldo will become more aroused throughout the game as the pressure increases as the team and crowd want to win . The idea is that arousal is linked to the dominant response which becomes activated. The dominant response is activated basically because it is the most learnt and for athletes it will be a response they have been prepared or trained for. According to the drive theory as the pressure increases Ronaldo's ability to perform will keep increasing and have no limit. ...read more.

Conclusion

Some athletes seek out stressful situations as it may help them increase there skill level and focus their attention more on their chosen sport. For example: Andy Murray felt the pressure and stress to win Wimbledon 2013, as he will end Britain's 77-year wait for a men`s champion. He felt the stress because all his fans in Britain were supporting him to win and he also wanted to win himself which gave him even more motivation to win. He felt the stress to win as he was playing the world number one, which meant his skill level improved rapidly and he kept his focus to win, which resulted in Andy Murray winning his first ever Wimbledon title. Distress This is our `bad` stress. This is when a situation gets the best of us, and can lead to `choking`. This is normally what we mean when we discuss stress. Many athletes suffer with this type of stress. It is an extreme form of anxiety, nervousness, apprehension, or worry. When athletes get this type of stress they may struggle to meet their demands in their chosen sport. For example: David Nalbandian was disqualified because he couldn`t cope with his stress levels.When Nalbandian was playing in the Aegon Championships 2012 he lost control of his stress and it turned into anger. This resulted in him kicking the box the line judge was sat in and injuring the line judge. This happened because Nalbandian won the first set winning the tie break at 7-3. This would put some stress on the tennis player, unfortunately the stress caused his skill level to decrease. Then in the second set his opponent broke his serve. Nalbandian didn't play his best double faulting at points. When he missed a hard return he lost that game. This stress caused him to get angry uncontrollably. â¯Alan Lawâ¯,â¯â¯Christos Halkiopoulosâ¯,â¯Christian Bryan; Psychology for the IB Diploma; 2010, Pearson 3 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. PE coursework Chosen Sport Rugby -working on my weaknesses as a fullback

    A performer should try to reach their optimum level of arousal, for the task at hand, so that their concentration and decision making are not impaired. However, when I perform a grubber kick I do not achieve my optimum

  2. To what extent will arousal influence preformance in netball.

    It also talks about the level of skill. The higher skilled a performer is the more likely he or she will be able to cope with higher levels of stress as the motor skill is so well learned that they do it without conscious thinking.

  1. Sport Science - Sport Psychology Task 3

    For example in formula 1 racing, a nervous driver perspiring and showing other somatic anxieties may have a negative effect on his performance and knock his confidence in the race. * Trait anxiety - this type of anxiety is a stable aspect of personality.

  2. Free essay

    A2 PE Factors Affecting Performance - Anxiety / Arousal

    It was shown by Lowe (1973) in his study of baseball players that during an important game their heart rates were higher than usual; he found that the more important the event the higher the heart rate was. I have done state anxiety tests in non-competition and competition states which

  1. Analysis of My performance In Rugby

    However some people may disagree, people can get distracted by close friends (girlfriends especially) as their minds are on trying to do too much to impress their friends, which can sometimes backfire and you can make the wrong decision and lose the chance for your team to score points by being selfish.

  2. My chosen sport for my Observation and analysis portfolio is golf.

    always grip the club perfectly because their shoots are always very accurate and this is not the sort of error an professional is likely to make. Further more the only way to really improve this sort of error is to always concentrate and double check my grip on my driver

  1. Monitor of experience in rock climbing

    My co-ordination skills need working on and I can do this by taking more time on a climb and watching where my next hold is. Being able to visualise a climb before I actually climb it would, I think make me more focussed and enable me to climb smoother with more fluidity.

  2. Self analysis of weaknesses in table tennis - Comparison to elite model 2

    or is not up to a good standard therefore meaning that it cant create any more spin than what is being currently created. * State which one is best suited to and why; The one best suited to me is that I wasn't taught the correct technique, this is because

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work