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We Gave Sport to The World - Social Aspects

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Introduction

Social Aspects Assignment 1 We Gave Sport to The World The industrial revolution began in the 1700's and continued for 100 years into the 1800's. These times signified a massive change in everyone's lives; large populations moved from rural areas to towns, farms were taken over by large land owner and many unskilled people were employed to work in factories six days a week. As a result any sporting or leisure activities they participated in before became increasingly more difficult to carry on. For example, towns expanded and it became harder to accommodate certain games such as, 'mob football'. With lack of space and facilities the emphasis of participating in sport soon shifted to purely spectator based. It also became apparent that due to long working days and hours the opportunity to play sport became rare. During the time some sports began to develop and upper classes started to draw up rules and organisations. This was largely influenced by the 'old boys' who had left university, yet still wanted to carry on playing their sport. In order to do this Governing Bodies developed, such as the Jockey Club in 1752 and the rules for cricket being drawn up in 1727. However, it wasn't until later in the nineteenth century that sport became so popular that it was necessary to set rules and laws in sports; this is when the majority of Governing Bodies were set up. The Governing Bodies discussed and agreed upon common laws and rules in order to make it possible for clubs and individuals from all over the country to compete against each other on equal terms. Like with the Cricket and Jockey, the other Governing Bodies that were set up in the 1800s were also done by the middle and upper classes as they were still tending to dominate the sporting world. The structure of the Governing Bodies tends to vary quite a lot due to some being more wealthy than others; for example, Football was so popular that the Football Association had quite a bit of money compared to the Badminton Association. ...read more.

Middle

They would not mix teams but play against each other. During the 20th Century many other changes occurred in amateurism and led to other terms known as: * Shamateurism, whereby the amateurs receive 'under the table' payments. & * Stamateur - state sponsored amateurs. In today's society amateurs may receive financial aid through sponsorship, lottery, sport aid, trust finds and organisations, however the money may only be spent on helping them with their sport, e.g. Training and travel costs. Professionalism has developed very differently to amateurism and has different concepts all together. Professionalism is defined as 'engaging in sporting activity for financial gain or as a means of livelihood means training is synonymous with improving standards and specialising in an activity'. One of the earliest professionals within sport was the Gladiator who provided entertainment in Ancient Greece/Rome. By comparing a Gladiator to a professional footballer it is possible to see the similarities and what denotes professional: * both involved in physical, contact sport * both could get injured which may result in the early end of their career * hired and fired * bought and sold through transfer deals * paid by their results * very little control as they are owned by a coach/manager/club * have a very high media status and treated as heroes/role models In order for a sport to become professional there are certain requirements, these include a large population within close proximity, a large number of people in the population to have a disposable income and enough time to spend on leisure activities, the need for excitement and the commercialism of the sport. The earliest forms of professionalism were in the forms of pedestrianism and prize fighting. Pedestrianism was a very early form of race walking and gentlemen would pay a member of the lower class to race for them so that bets could be placed and the gentlemen could socialise with a bit of entertainment. ...read more.

Conclusion

There were very few sports which all social classes would play together, however the players would have certain roles to determine the status within the game. Cricket first developed in rural areas where the lower classes would participate in the sport and the gentry would act as patron. It would usually take place in the summer months as it meant there was enough light for the workers to participate after work, due to the gently nature of the game it meant that the gentry could participate without feeling under threat from the peasants. The early rules introduced into the game helped to ensure people had a good behaviour with a great deal of respect. Although cricket was played between upper, middle and lower social classes, the county cricket games remained for only the higher classes. In order to keep it this way they played the games midweek where they knew the peasants would be at work, they also started to build grounds meaning the smaller and more portable fixtures were no longer used. In order to cater for the working classes a league similar to the football league developed which is known as the Lancashire League. This is the reason why most cricket teams today are from the north rather than the south. Cricket, like Lawn Tennis, was quickly accepted into schools due to the control the social masters had over the sport and the athleticism it upheld for the boys. The rules created by the Duke of Richmond in 1727 ensured that the participants played in a gentlemanly fashion and in the spirit of the game. Everyone would be involved, with the young boy's helping the older ones to practise. Cricket really accelerated during the transport revolution as it provided teams with a way of being able to play each other. Since then many forms have cricket have been developed such as Test Cricket, 20twenty, indoor cricket, one-day cricket and even Blind cricket. http://www.cricketscorelive.com/types-of-cricket/ 10th June 2008 All other information taken from: Sport and PE, A complete Guide to A Level Study, 3rd Edition, Wesson, James, Thompson and Hartigan, 2005 ...read more.

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