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Albert Einstein.

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Introduction

"There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as if everything is." - Albert Einstein - Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany on Mar, 14, 1879. Einstein's parents, who were non practicing Jews, moved from Ulm to Munich when Einstein was a baby. When the family's business, the manufacture of electrical parts, failed in 1894, the family moved to Milan, Italy. At this time Einstein decided legitimately to relinquish his German citizenship. Within a year, still without having completed secondary school, Einstein sat an examination that would have allowed him to pursue a course of study leading to a diploma as an electrical engineer at the Swiss Polytechnic, a top technical university, but he failed the arts component of the examination. His family sent him to the Swiss town of Aarau to finish high school. It was at this school that Einstein first started to develop a love for physics. In 1896, Einstein returned to the Swiss Polytechnic, where he graduated in 1900 as a secondary school teacher of mathematics and physics. After two years of teaching, Einstein obtained a post at the Swiss patent office in Bern. While he was employed at the office (1902-1909), Einstein completed an astonishing range of publications in theoretical physics. ...read more.

Middle

Albert Einstein as a patent clerk in Bern, Switzerland, in 1905. The third of Einstein's seminal papers, "Motion of Suspended Particles in the Kinetic Theory" of 1905 concerned statistical mechanics, a field of study that had been elaborated by, among others, Ludwig Boltzmann and Josiah Willard Gibbs. Unaware of Gibbs' contributions, Einstein extended Boltzmann's work and calculated the average trajectory of a microscopic particle buffeted by random collisions with molecules in a fluid or in a gas. Einstein observed that his calculations could account for brownian motion, the apparently erratic movement of pollen in fluids, which had been noted by the British botanist Robert Brown. Einstein's paper provided convincing evidence for the physical existence of atom-sized molecules, which had already received much theoretical discussion. His results were independently discovered by the Polish physicist Marian von Smoluchowski and later elaborated by the French physicist Jean Perrin. The next year, Einstein received a regular appointment as associate professor of physics at the University of Zurich. In 1909, Einstein was recognized throughout German-speaking Europe as a leading scientific thinker. In 1911, Einstein moved to the German-speaking university at Prague, and in 1912 he returned to the Swiss National Polytechnic in Z�rich. Finally, by 1914 he advanced to the most prestigious and best-paying post that a theoretical physicist could hold in central Europe, professor at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Gesellschaft Institute for physics in Berlin. ...read more.

Conclusion

It raised six million dollars, the manuscript today being in the Library of Congress. By 1949 Einstein was unwell. A spell in hospital helped him recover but he began to prepare for death by drawing up his will in 1950. He left his scientific papers to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, a university which he had raised funds for on his first visit to the USA, served as a governor of the university from 1925 to 1928 but he had turned down the offer of a post in 1933 as he was very critical of its administration. Also, in the early 1950s he spoke out on the need for the nation's intellectuals to make any sacrifice necessary to preserve political freedom. One more major event was to take place in his life. After the death of the first president of Israel in 1952, the Israeli government decided to offer the post of second president to Einstein. He refused but found the offer an embarrassment since it was hard for him to refuse without causing offense. One week before his death, Einstein signed his last letter. It was a letter to Bertrand Russell in which he agreed that his name should go on a manifesto urging all nations to give up nuclear weapons. It is fitting that one of his last acts was to argue, as he had done all his life, for international peace. Einstein died on April 16th, 1955 due to heart failure. ...read more.

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