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Assess the arguments in favour of a largely or wholly elected second chamber.

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Transfer-Encoding: chunked Assess the arguments in favour of a largely or wholly elected second chamber. The House of Lords (HL), sometimes known as the revising chamber or upper chamber of parliament, is the second element of parliament and as such its consent (generally) is required to make law. There are two types of peer, Lord spiritual (the 26 most senior Church of England bishop, which now has 2 women in is ranks) and the Lord Temporal (of which there are three types; hereditary peers, life peers and law Lords). Before the passing of the Parliament Act in 1911 the Hl held a veto over legislation passed in the Commons. That statue means that the Lords can only delay the passing of a bill and not defeat it totally. When New Labour came into power in 1990 one of their manifesto pledges was to reform the Upper chamber by abolishing the rights of hereditary peers to come to parliament and vote on legislation. This was always going to be hard to achieve and when the House of Lords Act 1999 was granted Royal Assent, due to the Weatherall (Speaker of the HC before Bercow) Amendments, 92 hereditary remained members of the lords. Despite a couple of half-hearted attempts to further reform the Lords since the HLA (House of Lords Act) ...read more.


Electing the upper house at a different time to the Commons, such as at the same time as European elections, would also help to ensure its composition differs from that of the lower house. Members of the upper house could be elected for long, non-renewable terms meaning they would be less influenced by short-term electoral considerations and so could take a longer-term view on legislation might be possible for many members of the Commons. Furthermore, the expertise of an appointed House of Lords is often overstated for some areas of policy. One of the most frequently made arguments in favour of an elected House of Lords is that the chamber brings a wide array of expertise to bear on the legislative process While this is true for some areas of policy, particularly legal, constitutional and some scientific matters, research on peers? understanding of social policy - the largest area of public spending ? shows this to be patchy. MPs tend to have a greater knowledge of this area of policy, at least partly due to their contacts with constituents. More broadly, research facilities for members of the Lords are more limited than those in the lower house, leaving peers more likely to rely on materials from lobbyists. ...read more.


A strong. Independent appointments commission could deliver this, removing or greatly reducing the role of political parties in the nomination process In addition, an elected upper house would produce competing claims of legitimacy, foster conflict between the Commons and Lords, and bring gridlock. If both Houses of Parliament were directly elected - and by different electoral systems at different times -- disputes about who represents the will of the people could arise. The constitutional conventions governing relations between the two houses would no longer be suitable. The Salisbury convention, which states that the Lords should not reject bills that enact a manifesto commitment of the governing party, has already come under strain with peers disputing the mandate of governments. New rules of the game would have to be agreed at a time of strained relations. The House of Commons would remain the dominant chamber and it would not be obliged to accept amendments made in the upper house. But if an upper house emboldened by direct election refused to back down, the choices facing the government would be unappealing. It could compromise and find itself unable to implement its manifesto pledges. Or it could resort to the Parliament Act 1949 and enact legislation without the consent of the lords after a gap of 1 year. In short, an elected upper house would flex its muscles, producing gridlock and doing little to improve the quality of legislation. ...read more.

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