• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"Compare the successes and failures of Castlereagh and Canning's Foreign Policies"

Extracts from this document...


"Compare the successes and failures of Castlereagh and Canning's Foreign Policies" The Tory Foreign affairs between 1814 and 1830 was dominated by Lord Castlereagh, foreign secretary between 1814 and 1822 and his successor George Canning, who occupied the same post between 1822 and 1827. During this period, both Castlereagh and Canning were faced with various international problems and I am going to explore their successes and failures with issues they confronted. Initially, I shall examine the achievements and failures of Lord Castlereagh and then moving onto Canning's era, which I shall compare with the previous period of 1814 to 1822. Lord Castlereagh knew that for him to be a successful Foreign Secretary, he needed to settle some outstanding issues. Thus, his policies included an appropriate settlement for France, balancing of territorial interests of major powers and the formation of a system of regular consultation to deal with disputes between them. The first thing that Castlereagh dealt with was France. He knew that France was potentially the greatest of all European powers with enough manpower to undertake renewed conquests. Therefore, he restored the Bourbon monarchy in France and the country had to pay an indemnity as well as support an army occupation in. ...read more.


Castlereagh's refusal to support this Protocol distanced him from Metternich and seemed to presage the collapse of diplomacy. The last two congresses, the Congress of Laibach and Verona were not attended by any British representatives, after which it was never held again. I think Castlereagh's suicide just before the Congress of Verona ended any chance of the congress's revival. Could he have brought back the congress from the brink of interventionism is a more open question than the historians are prepared to acknowledge. Although branded as a failure, the Congress system cannot be described as one because I feel that it set the pace for future organisations, like the European Union, United Nations or even the League of Nations, which have met with successes. However, overall Lord Castlereagh should be given credit for his intelligent and restrained policies. He created a new international system in 1815 and maintained it without distorting British interests. He also maintained co-operation and his personal tragedy had greater impact on foreign policy than it did on home affairs. I am now going to compare his policies with his successor George Canning's. George Canning was a refreshing change to the British parliament as he was seen as a progressive and positive individual. ...read more.


Finally, Canning had to deal with the Greek revolt under Turkish rule in Eastern Europe. The Greeks wanted independence from the Islamic Ottoman Empire and as Greeks were fellow Orthodox Christians, Russians sided with them. Canning was concerned with Russian expansion in the East, which would threaten British India. This is why Canning decides to remain neutral and the Greek independence occurs. However, in 1825, the Greeks asked the British and Russians to mediate with either Greece or Turkey. Canning pledged with France and Russia that if Turkey did not ceasefire, they would interfere. Although, Canning died two months before battle, the Turks were destroyed in the Battle of Navarino in 1827. This is a notable success of Canning as he used his influence to allow Greek independence but not at the expense of Russian expansion. Castlereagh and Canning both had their fair share of successes and failures. Nevertheless, I feel that Castlereagh's trial to establish of a system to maintain peace and equilibrium is probably a greater achievement than any other. Understandably, Canning was less committed to an international system, in which he had no hand in creating. I believe that Castlereagh's achievements were for the future peace of mankind whereas Canning's achievements were essentially contemporary only. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level United States section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level United States essays

  1. A Foreign Policy of Freedom. A United States foreign policy of intervention, through ...

    intrigue, of individual avarice, envy, and ambition, which assume the colors and usurp the standard of freedom" (Quote from John Quincy Adams). The founding fathers generally disliked the idea of foreign intervention based on the actions of the British on the American colonies and advised against committing similar actions in the future.

  2. Indian independence

    This was known as the 'Quit Indian Campaign'. This was impossible while they continued to fight the Japanese in the World War. As these demands were not met, demonstrations began in India. First, they were peaceful but later they all turned violent. Police stations, government offices, railways and telephone lines were all attacked.

  1. Castlereagh had limited success in the context of British Foreign Policy between 1815 and ...

    Another reason why I believe that Castlereagh achieved more than limited success is that the balance of power was maintained by using Austria as a buffer state and also preventing Russia from becoming involved in Spain which would have almost certainly disrupted the balance of power.

  2. What were the aims and achievements of Lord Castlereagh in foreign affairs after the ...

    Unimpressed by Castlereagh's objections, the other representatives issued the Troppau Protocol which asserted the right to intervene in any country where a revolution seemed in danger of infecting other countries.

  1. "An admirable and enlightened example of international co-operation.' Does the congress System (1815-25) deserve ...

    The rules included balance of power and defensive arrangements against France. The first rule prevented a country was too strong to attack others, or vice versa, a country was too weak and attracted her neighbours to attack her. The second rule prevented France, which was regarded as a warlike country that time, start wars again.

  2. How successfully did the European Congresses maintain European peace between 1815-1830?

    These Congresses did not really affect the peace in Europe between 1815-1830, but only dealt with the Greek and Spanish revolution. * From the evidence wee can see that the Congresses successfully held the peace in Europe between 1815-1830, once Napoleon was safely exiled away.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work