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Critical Analysis Essay"A manager's frame of reference is his/her most enabling asset".

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Critical Analysis Essay "A manager's frame of reference is his/her most enabling asset" Whenever we talk about managers, suddenly an image emerged in our minds as a person who is unruffled, well-organized, clean desks, power suits and with sophisticated information systems. According to common definition a manager is a person who plan organize, coordinate and control activities of subordinates. They develop and implement farsighted strategies, producing predictable and effective results. But in real life story is different. A different picture emerges if you take some time to watch managers at work. According to Carson, Mintzbeerg& Kotter, it's a hectic life, shifting rapidly to one situation to another, each with a different blend of challenges (Bolman&Deal,1997,p265). According to Kotter, in months of observing senior managers, he rarely saw them making a decision. Decisions emerged from a fluid, swirling vortex of conversations, meetings, and memos. Sophisticated information systems only ensure an overload of details about past happening, but they fail to answer a far more important question: what will happen tomorrow. In deciding what to do next, managers operates mostly on the basis of intuition-hunches and judgment derived from past experience. They use their own capability and frame of mind to solve any problem (Bolman &Deal ,1997, pp265-266). ...read more.


Human Resource, Symbolic Structural, Political. Is the technical quality of the decision important? Structural HR, symbolic, Political. Are there high levels of ambiguity and uncertainty? Political, Symbolic. Structural, HR. Are conflict and scarce resources significant? Political, Symbolic. Structural, Human Resource. Are you working from the bottom up? Political Structural, HR, Symbolic. According to this table, the human resource and symbolic frames need to be considered whenever issues of individual commitment, energy, and skill are keys to effective implementation. For example a new curriculum in a school district will fail without teacher support. Support might be strengthened by human resource approaches like participation and self-managing teams or through symbolic approaches linking the innovation to values and symbols teachers cherish. When a good decision needs to be technically correct, emphasis should be on structural frame. But if a decision must be acceptable to major constituents, human resources, political, or symbolic issues will be more significant. When goals are clear, technology is well understood, and behavior is reasonably predictable, the structural and human resources frames are likely to apply. As ambiguity increases, the political and symbolic frames become more relevant. The human resource frame fits best in situations that favor collaboration such as profitable, growing firms, or highly unified schools. ...read more.


Among the key variables are motivation, technical constraints, uncertainty, scarcity, conflict and whether an individual is operating from the top down or from the bottom up. Structural and human resource approaches may be all one need to build a successful career in middle management, but these will not be helpful to rise to top management or to break through the glass ceiling if you face one. The ability to reframe and use multiple lenses will help one to go further while feeling less strain and confusing along the way. Until the frames and reframing are automatic process, it will take more than a few seconds available to generate an effective response in every frame. In practicing any new skill i.e. playing tennis, driving a car, the process is often slow and painstaking at first. But as skill level improves, it gets easier, faster and more fluid. Organizations need vision, but it is not their only need and not always their most important one. Ideally managers combine multiple frames in to a comprehensive approach to leadership. Still it is an unrealistic to expect everyone to be a leader for all times and seasons. Wise managers understand their own strength, work to expand them and build teams that can provide leadership in all four modes i.e. structural, political, human resource and symbolic. Tarun Kumar Tiwari Student ID - 10077117 2 ...read more.

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