• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Critical Analysis Essay"A manager's frame of reference is his/her most enabling asset".

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Critical Analysis Essay "A manager's frame of reference is his/her most enabling asset" Whenever we talk about managers, suddenly an image emerged in our minds as a person who is unruffled, well-organized, clean desks, power suits and with sophisticated information systems. According to common definition a manager is a person who plan organize, coordinate and control activities of subordinates. They develop and implement farsighted strategies, producing predictable and effective results. But in real life story is different. A different picture emerges if you take some time to watch managers at work. According to Carson, Mintzbeerg& Kotter, it's a hectic life, shifting rapidly to one situation to another, each with a different blend of challenges (Bolman&Deal,1997,p265). According to Kotter, in months of observing senior managers, he rarely saw them making a decision. Decisions emerged from a fluid, swirling vortex of conversations, meetings, and memos. Sophisticated information systems only ensure an overload of details about past happening, but they fail to answer a far more important question: what will happen tomorrow. In deciding what to do next, managers operates mostly on the basis of intuition-hunches and judgment derived from past experience. They use their own capability and frame of mind to solve any problem (Bolman &Deal ,1997, pp265-266). ...read more.

Middle

Human Resource, Symbolic Structural, Political. Is the technical quality of the decision important? Structural HR, symbolic, Political. Are there high levels of ambiguity and uncertainty? Political, Symbolic. Structural, HR. Are conflict and scarce resources significant? Political, Symbolic. Structural, Human Resource. Are you working from the bottom up? Political Structural, HR, Symbolic. According to this table, the human resource and symbolic frames need to be considered whenever issues of individual commitment, energy, and skill are keys to effective implementation. For example a new curriculum in a school district will fail without teacher support. Support might be strengthened by human resource approaches like participation and self-managing teams or through symbolic approaches linking the innovation to values and symbols teachers cherish. When a good decision needs to be technically correct, emphasis should be on structural frame. But if a decision must be acceptable to major constituents, human resources, political, or symbolic issues will be more significant. When goals are clear, technology is well understood, and behavior is reasonably predictable, the structural and human resources frames are likely to apply. As ambiguity increases, the political and symbolic frames become more relevant. The human resource frame fits best in situations that favor collaboration such as profitable, growing firms, or highly unified schools. ...read more.

Conclusion

Among the key variables are motivation, technical constraints, uncertainty, scarcity, conflict and whether an individual is operating from the top down or from the bottom up. Structural and human resource approaches may be all one need to build a successful career in middle management, but these will not be helpful to rise to top management or to break through the glass ceiling if you face one. The ability to reframe and use multiple lenses will help one to go further while feeling less strain and confusing along the way. Until the frames and reframing are automatic process, it will take more than a few seconds available to generate an effective response in every frame. In practicing any new skill i.e. playing tennis, driving a car, the process is often slow and painstaking at first. But as skill level improves, it gets easier, faster and more fluid. Organizations need vision, but it is not their only need and not always their most important one. Ideally managers combine multiple frames in to a comprehensive approach to leadership. Still it is an unrealistic to expect everyone to be a leader for all times and seasons. Wise managers understand their own strength, work to expand them and build teams that can provide leadership in all four modes i.e. structural, political, human resource and symbolic. Tarun Kumar Tiwari Student ID - 10077117 2 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Political Philosophy section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Political Philosophy essays

  1. Communism essay review.

    But later on, a Prussian government in 1845 closed down the Vorwarts. Forcing Marx along with a small group of others, among them the Russian radical Mikhail Bakunin to move in Brussels, the capital neighboring Belgium.

  2. An analysis of the Marxist perspective on religion

    The proletariats create God. Marx believed "man makes religion, religion does not make man."3 This is similar to the ideas of Ludwig Andreas Feurbach. He said that the ideas of religion are produced because they are dissatisfied in their practical lives; therefore they need to believe in the "fantasy" of religion.

  1. Photomontage in Berlin, A critical study of the capitals inter-war artwork

    Germany's current situation was that of political and social unrest, people wanted a military figure to lead the country. In creating this image he has predicted history, as this becomes a reality fifteen years later. This is also an important image because it shows Heartfield moving away from dada and towards a more composed image.

  2. Critical Analysis of "The Necklace" Short Story

    These dreams and aspirations demonstrate that Mathilde's thoughts are in the wrong place; and go to show how materialistic she really is. Mathilde first rejects the invitation. She only agrees to go to the party after her husband painstakingly bargains with her, and ends up having to buy her a new dress to get her to come.

  1. The ability to manage conflict is undoubtedly one of the most important skills a ...

    Maintaining a good relationship with the other person(s). Some relationships are temporary while some are long term. Some long-term relationships are vital and others are peripheral. Your relationship with the other person may be place on a continuum from being of little importance to you to being highly important.

  2. Styles of management in human resources.

    Tending to be responsive or to react to a stimulus. 2. Characterized by reaction. 3. Chemistry & Physics. Tending to participate readily in reactions. What do you think is a good quality of a leader? Ask any motivational guru and they'll promptly tell you the bald facts of leadership: leadership is not for wimps.

  1. An analysis of the Marxist Perspective on Religion

    capital, they must try all methods possible to legitimate and reproduce class inequality. The status quo is enforced and given justification through the use of the education system, the mass media and through religion. Religion as 'the opium of the people.'

  2. Power and Politics in Organizations: Public and Private Sector Comparisons

    and the bureaucracy (as 'agent') for the simple reason that in many circumstances the bureaucrats not only administer policies but also de facto make policies. In fact, the fabric of public policy-making and its administration is typically a seamless admixture of official and unofficial bodies interacting together in ways that make it next to impossible to distinguish principals from agents.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work