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Critically assess the value of the models of Frank, Rostow and Clark-Fisher in our understanding of development issues.

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Introduction

Critically assess the value of the models of Frank, Rostow and Clark-Fisher in our understanding of development issues. There are a great number of differences between the models of Frank, Rostow and Clark-Fisher. For example, the Clark-Fisher sector model and W.W. Rostow's modernisation theory are merely temporally based models of development. However, Frank's dependency theory contains elements of both temporal and spatial factors. There is also the highly significant division to consider between dependency theories and modernisation theories. Dependency theories are the theories which build upon the idea that the rate of development of a country is largely a consequence of its relationships with other countries. On the other hand, modernisation theories are theories that build upon the idea that the rate of development of a country is largely to do with internal structures, government and culture of that country. According to Frank's dependency theory, countries can become more frequently dependent on powerful colonial powers. He believed that as the more powerful country exploits the resources of the weaker colony, the colony becomes more dependent. Frank in 1971 described the effect of capitalist development on many countries as "the development of underdevelopment". ...read more.

Middle

W.W. Rostow's modernisation theory incorporated five stages through which he believed that all developing societies must pass. His model was put together through his work on the growth of industrialisation in the UK and USA. The five stages of the model are: traditional subsistence economy, preconditions for take-off, take-off to maturity, the drive to maturity and the age of high-mass consumption. These stages can be characterised by limited technology and a static and hierarchical social structure. Despite the fact that Rostow's model was proposed in terms of the national economic unit, he concluded that the development gap was explained due to different countries being at different stages of the model. Rostow was able to present a highly descriptive model of development in which much was left unsaid about how one stage leads to another. Rostow, like Frank, did commit himself to a number of hypotheses. His theory is evolutionist, as it sees social and economic change as unfolding through a fixed set of stages. It is also un-linear because all countries must pass by the same route and in the same order. There can be no leaps, shortcuts, choices or alternative routes to development. ...read more.

Conclusion

This increases the diversity of industry within a country or region. The UK has a good example in the cotton industry as it encourages textile machinery, and service industries. Also, the ability of the Clark-Fisher sector model to interact with other models such as Rostow's modernisation theory, the Demographic Transition Model and Myrdal's cumulative causation can only work in its favour. The problems with the Clark-Fisher sector model are far more easily understood than either of the previous two discussed models. The sector model is highly descriptive and offers only a crude level of analysis. It does not however say how or why a country has developed, and it also does not show the internal variations which can exist within a country. All three of these development models contribute significantly to the understanding and different interpretations of development, in one form or another. However, because of the flaws in each of the three models which have been identified when the models were produced, none of them can claim to be the leading authority on development, and maybe if these models were used in conjunction with further models of development from Wallerstein, Sutcliffe or Friedmann, then they would become more apparently clear. ?? ?? ?? ?? William Cooper ...read more.

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