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Define Titoism

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DEFINE TITOISM "Now I had to take a new name. I adopted first the name of Rudi, but another comrade had the same name and so I was obliged to change it, adopting the name Tito. ...Why did I take this name 'Tito' and has it special significance? I took it as any other because it occurred to me at the moment."1 In 1948, the leaders of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia clashed over ideological and political issues. This conflict brought about the creation of a new Yugoslav doctrine that became the basis for Yugoslavia's domestic policies from the early 1950s and on. This new ideology became known as "Titoism," because it had been crafted by the great Yugoslav statesman, and it combined many ideologies that he had been exposed to during his younger years, such as Austro-Marxism, for example. However, the most important innovation was Tito's implementation of the core tenets of Marxism in a way that he considered pure and un-corrupted in comparison to the way the Soviet Union was putting it to practice. How Tito managed to get to this point of defiance of Moscow's authority is an interesting story in and of itself, for only some years prior to that no one could have envisioned that the leader of a smaller state would stand so boldly to defend his country's rights in the face of a much bigger power. ...read more.


Several major changes also took place in the economy. The central planning system was revised and workers were given the right to manage their own factories: This decentralisation of the economy lifted the stifling control from above and provided incentives for worker's initiative. This was a very important innovation. According to Marx, Tito argued, the surplus value that workers created should go to workers. Under capitalism, owners of the means of production appropriated this surplus value. Under Stalinism, it was appropriated by the bureaucracy. Tito made sure that in Yugoslavia the workers receive fair share for their work, since they would actually own the means of production. This "socialised property" was to be controlled by the organs of self-management. While Yugoslavia still had a planned economy, it was not a centrally planned economy. The planners of the Yugoslav economy, unlike planners in the USSR, did not enforce production quotas, prices, and quality, and were to make these decisions according to the law of supply and demand; competition among enterprises was allowed. All efforts to-collectivise agriculture were halted. The Yugoslav approach was to permit some private ownership of land. This particularly concerned the land in hard-to-reach places which made consolidation of land plots very difficult. In other places, however, collective ownership was preserved. Finally, important reforms were carried out with regard to the party structure. ...read more.


Also, the decentralisation already achieved in government functions and devolution of authority was another factor why Tito was hesitant to re-obtain absolute centralist power. It would have been hard for the party to take control of so many economic and social management bodies. Many non-communists participated in these self-managing bodies because they could act free of influence of the party. To put party members back in their former positions of influence would have cost the state the support of many non-communist citizens. Last but not least, there was a problem concerning the participation of young people in politics and local decision-making. They were opposed to rigid conformity even if the political environment they grew up in had already been decentralised to a considerable extent, for they did not know that. "For young people, the situation would never be liberal and democratic enough. Especially if some of them had had the chance to travel abroad and saw how much freer the political environment was elsewhere."17 Tito needed the support of the youth of Yugoslavia, because this was the segment of society that was destined to continue the long hard work he had gained. Unfortunately, Tito could not come to terms with the fact that despite his own ideological changes, the newer generations changed at a faster pace, demanding more control over the affairs of their country. After everything Tito had gone through to establish his own utopia of a socialist Yugoslavia, he was not going to let any liberal-minded personality take the dream away from him. ...read more.

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