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EU actorness in relation to Environment policy and Development policy: An evaluation.

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Introduction

Lynda Curtis EU actorness in relation to Environment policy and Development policy: An evaluation. "The sheer size of the European Union in economic, trade and financial terms makes it a world player. The EU has a web of bilateral and multilateral agreements covering most countries and regions of the globe."1 The European Union today faces global responsibilities and challenges. The EU is the largest trading block in the world, the largest donor of humanitarian and development assistance and a constant point of reference for others on stability, democracy and human rights2. Although the European Union institutions play a huge part in the day-to-day affairs of the states inside of the Union this report will assess the EU's role in relation to the area outside of the European Union borders. I will look firstly at the different criteria by which it can be established that the EU is indeed an actor I will then look closer at how the EU acts externally in two policy areas; Environmental policy and Development policy. I will conclude with an assessment of the European Union as an actor outside of the EU area. How do we define Europe as an external actor? There are deemed to be certain prerequisites to distinguish 'actorness' in a state. In order to call the EU an actor there must be commitment at EU level to a set of values and principles, both political and moral, accepted by all the member states. There must be the ability to prioritise and formulate policies that are in turn accepted by all the European Union institutions and the governments of the member states. There must be the capacity to use the policies formulated internally and apply them to external policy and the Union must have the ability to act quickly and effectively to crisis. Realist theorists believe that the European Union is unable to fill these criteria for actorness as they claim that calling the twenty five EU countries a collective state is to simple a view for contemporary politics. ...read more.

Middle

The convention, which replaces the fourth Lom� Convention, has been signed for 20 years and is to be revised every five years. It covers five main points:7 1. To make the integration of the ACP into the world economy a priority by liberalising trade. In particular, the convention abolishes the price stabilisation mechanisms that safeguarded the export revenue of the ACP countries from agricultural products. 2. The ACP will no longer automatically receive money. It will now depend on the achievement of targets (institutional reforms, use of resources, the reduction of poverty, long-term development measures). 3. The fight against poverty must encompass many fields: political (regional cooperation), economic (development of the private sector, structural and sectoral reforms), social (youth, equal opportunities), cultural and environmental. 4. The populations concerned must be informed and consulted to increase participation by the economic, social and local community actors in the implementation of projects. 5. Provision must be made for political dialogue on all matters of mutual interest, nationally and regionally as well as at ACP level. Procedures, notably the suspension of aid, are put in place for human rights violations or corruption. The partnership conventions were of great importance to the co-operation between the EU and the ACP countries, giving the ACP formal recognition and the ability to act independently of the EU. Capability Consistency Despite the fact that, internally, the Member States often disagree about the Union's relations with the ACP countries this disagreement is usually small enough to not disrupt the policy area allowing good consistency within Development policy. There is however matters arising with clashes between European Union Development policy and the Member States own policy. Coherence There are coherence issues within Development policy particularly as there are plans to include the EDF in the Community budget. This may mean lees financial backing for Development policy as other policy areas take priority. Availability of policy instruments The EC, it would appear, do have the instruments available to provide development aid to less developed countries, primarily through the European Development Fund. ...read more.

Conclusion

with the priorities of other policy areas. Reference list Activities of the European Union; External relations http://europa.eu.int/pol/ext/index_en.htm Accessed 02/11/2005 Bretherton, C. and Vogler, J. (2006) Europe as a Global Actor, Routledge Earth Negotiations Bulletin VOL 24 No 54 Published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development from http://iisd.ca/vol24/enb2454e.html Accessed 15/11/2005 EU mobilises an additional �80 from African peace faculty to support enlarged African Union observer mission in Darfur, Sudan. Brussels (26/10/2004) from http://europa.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do European Commission, (2005) the A World Player: The European Union's External Relations, Europe on the move, from http://www.europea.eu.int/comm Accessed 10/11/2005 European Development Fund (Last update 12/10/2001) http://europa.eu.int/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/r12102.htm Accessed 06/12/06 European Parliament Fact Sheets (2004) Relations with the African, Caribbean1 European Commission, (2005) the A World Player: The European Union's External Relations, Europe on the move, from http://www.europea.eu.int/comm Accessed 10/11/2005 Kristianasen, W. (2002) The Cotonou Convention, Le Monde Diplomatique Kyoto USA http://www.kyotousa.org/ Accessed 08/12/2005 Unified external service of the European Commission http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations /delegations/intro/index.htm Accessed 09/11/2005 1Activities of the European Union; External relations http://europa.eu.int/pol/ext/index_en.htm Accessed 02/11/2005 2 Unified external service of the European Commission http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations /delegations/intro/index.htm Accessed 09/11/2005 3 European Commission, (2005) the A World Player: The European Union's External Relations, Europe on the move, from http://www.europea.eu.int/comm Accessed 10/11/2005 4 Bretherton, C. and Vogler, J. (2006) Europe as a Global Actor, Routledge 5European Parliament Fact Sheets (2004) Relations with the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries: from the Yaound� and Lom� Conventions to the Cotonou Agreement http://www.europarl.eu.int/facts/6_4_5_en.htm Accessed 20/11/2005 6 European Parliament Fact Sheets (2004) Relations with the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries: from the Yaound� and Lom� Conventions to the Cotonou Agreement http://www.europarl.eu.int/facts/6_4_5_en.htm Accessed 20/11/2005 7 Kristianasen, W. (2002) The Cotonou Convention, Le Monde Diplomatique 8 European Development Fund (Last update 12/10/2001) http://europa.eu.int/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/r12102.htm Accessed 06/12/06 9 EU mobilises an additional �80 from African peace faculty to support enlarged African Union observer mission in Darfur, Sudan. Brussels (26/10/2004) from http://europa.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do 10 Earth Negotiations Bulletin VOL 24 No 54 Published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development from http://iisd.ca/vol24/enb2454e.html Accessed 15/11/2005 11 Kyoto USA http://www.kyotousa.org/ Accessed 08/12/2005 ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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