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AS and A Level: European Union
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- Marked by Teachers essays 8
- Word count: 1628
It is the case that EU law overrides national law when the two conflict. This alone could show a ceding of sovereignty and as a supranational organisation the EU is more focused on working towards greater integration than national interest. Despite this surrendering of power to a higher authority, the EU only becomes the supreme decision making body in specified areas, although areas of national law could be affected without intention. For example, EU environmental decisions may indirectly impact agricultural law in some countries.
- Word count: 812
"'A troublesome partner.' Using examples, to what extent would you say this comment accurately describes the United Kingdom's membership of the EU since 1973"4 star(s)
the notion that Britain is the EU's 'awkward partner,' per se, is the 'wait and see' approach with regard to the possibility of EMU. This non-committal policy creates many dilemmas. Firstly, it confuses prospective and current inward investors, (exemplified by car manufacturing) and the British public as a whole.4 Secondly, and perhaps more imporatantly, it brings about the question of the implementation of a 'two-speed' Europe with an 'inner core' of nations whose integration is accelerated. Further fudging of the issue will inevitably mean that Britain's voice in Europe in terms of shaping the Union's future monetary and fiscal policy is significantly diminished.4 If Britain's future is within the Euro, this policy is unquestionably harmful to Britain's future interests.
- Word count: 3352
There was realisation that major institutional change was necessary with the main purpose the elimination of the still existent barriers, extending the EC's competence and laying the foundation for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), therefore a legislative programme was proposed in the White Paper, which sought to identify the areas within EC where the problems existed and deal with them through a new approach known as mutual recognition and equivalence. According to Archer C. in The EU, p. 71, the widely circulated Cecchini Report showed that to maintain the barriers to the freedom of movement of goods, services, labour
- Word count: 2227
‘The main democratic deficit in the European Union is psychological, not institutional.’ Discuss.4 star(s)
Dogan (1992) offered the following definition 'people hold the belief, that ... institutions are appropriate or morally proper'. The EU however, as I will explain later is indirectly elected and does not conform to this idea of legitimacy. Using the Western ideas of democracy and legitimacy to come to the conclusion of a democratic deficit is over-simplified as it relates to nation-states, yet the European Union is a unique concept and far removed from the model of a traditional nation-state. This begs the question; shouldn't different versions of democracy and legitimacy apply? This means an examination of the decision-making process is required to establish/disprove democratic and legitimate elements within the EU.
- Word count: 1589
The treaty was seen as foundational in bringing together Europe in peace after the Second World War. Some of the main enemies during the war were now sharing production of coal and steel, one of the very resources which previously had been central to the war effort. How Tesco is Affected Tesco would be affected in a postive way as with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, Tesco would benefit from the free trade alliance and would also be able to benefit from the cheap steel prices means that Tesco would find it cheaper to build stores and depots, this means then that Tesco can then return the profits to the shareholders and the customers if they wish to do.
- Word count: 2573
To what extent has the European Union been successful in "establishing" a coherent European identity
(Parker, E 2003) Thus the EU firstly chooses to take efforts to effectively manage the EU economy. Apart from the single currency and Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the greatest achievement in the EU history is the single market. It is about 15 years that the objective, which abolishing all physical, technical, and tax-related barriers to free movement put forward in 1985, was achieved. The aim of that is to improve industry and commerce within a larger economic area on a scale with the United State. (Europa(e)). First of all, there is no border any more. All borders controls within the EU on goods have been abolished, together with customs controls on people.
- Word count: 2083
The past few decades have shown we need all the measures we can to keep control of the economy! To illustrate this problem, let us suppose that there are inflationary fears in Germany and France, two influential member countries, but not in Britain. In response the ECB is likely to set high interest rates to dampen economic activity and curb inflation. However, in Britain this dampening of activity is not needed as there is little inflationary pressure. The high interest rates set by the ECB merely serve to slow down the British economy. This problem may be aggravated by the fact that Britain is very sensitive to interest rate changes.
- Word count: 1584
A European Union federal state would mean the UK would have to give up further national sovereignty. This in return would give European Union considerable power to make decisions at supranational level rather than intergovernmental. Supranational means the national interests are set aside and are replaced by the interests of the European Union as a whole. For example the Common Agricultural Policy as supranational. Supranational decisions are perceived to be negative because although it can benefit countries, it does so at the expense of the other the other countries. . An example of this was when Ireland in the mid 2000's began to grow at a vast rate, however this lead to high rate inflation in Ireland.
- Word count: 1419
Labour and Conservative parties policies on the EU have become increasingly similar. Discuss. discuss
However during the late 1980s Labour started becoming more Euro-Positive because the EU now is not only about economic benefits but is also about social factors such as Human Rights, which is in the best interest of the sector of society that Labour represents. Therefore where Conservatives have gone form being more Euro-Positive to Euro-Sceptic, Labour has gone from Euro-phobic to Euro-Positive. In the recent years however the opinion of both the parties towards the EU seems to changing once again, where both Labour and conservative have been heard saying Britain is at the heart of Europe suggesting an Euro-positive mindset, they have both opted out of joining the Euro zone and have rejected further integration suggesting an Euro-sceptical view.
- Word count: 2062
On 1st January 1958 the ECSC agreement was replaced by the European Economic Community (EEC) after the signing of the treaty of Rome in 1957. This treaty would see a greater degree of co-operation and integration between member states (Bentley, 2006, p225). In Britain, this was seen as a move to create a supranational organisation and the concern was that membership would see Britain lose its sovereignty over economic and defence policies amongst others (ibid, p226). Britain had an economic boom in the late 50's and early 60's but the EEC members were experiencing far greater growth of their own.
- Word count: 1822
However a major disadvantage of parliamentary questions is due to the fact that the questions are shared about between the political parties according to their strength, therefore the larger party will be given more questions than the smaller parties and this will cause the scrutinizing function of parliamentary questions to be less effective. However supplementary questions allow TDs to scrutinize the government effectively and embarrass them at the same time. Overall parliamentary questions are ineffective when it comes to scrutinizing the government and they have been described as "scripted, predictable, soulless affair" by The Irish Times.
- Word count: 767
There is no doubt that increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere will have numerous, long term effects on the State of Israel: a reduction of at least 25% of water availability by the end of the 21st century; a 10cm rise in sea level may lead to coastline retreat of 2-10 meters and to the loss of 0.4-2 square kilometres of coast every 10 years; increase in mosquito populations and their distributions may increase risk of diseases such as malaria; damage to crops due to decrease in water availability; migrations of Mediterranean species northward and their replacement by desert ecosystems from the Negev and an average long-term increase in electricity demand in the order of 3.2% a year.
- Word count: 999
This was a way of preventing civil war and the creation of failed states in places like Somalia. Finally the third generation of peacekeeping operations have included peace-building. Peace-building identifies and strengthens internal structures within states which will prevent conflicts from breaking out. The role of the UN in peacekeeping operations has declined dramatically but there has been an increase in the need for both peace-enforcement and peace-building operations. The same factors determine the success or failure of the UN in all these situations.
- Word count: 1545
They then began to work towards creating a constitution for the country under the rule of the National Assembly. This was to create a constitutional monarchy where the King had to share power with the National Assembly, although he still kept some of his main powers. This lasted for a while but led to more wars with Frances neighbouring countries. Whilst they were at war with Austria, insurgents managed to capture the King and Queen and declare the monarchy suspended. When the Imperial and Prussian armies asked for the re-instation of the monarch or attack, it seemed as though the King had been conspiring with the enemy and he was executed in 1793.
- Word count: 3387
The Lisbon Treaty, which will be discussed later, has served to further entrench its existence as the single European currency. With a single currency, except Denmark and the UK who have opt-outs, the possibility for a federal superstate is far more likely. Centralised banks and supranational economic institutions pin down the possibility of a supranational government and entity as a whole. Within the USA, the single currency across all the states was a prerequisite for federalism. Furthermore with a single currency and a single trade area, states of the EU can trade with each other without tariffs, sanctions or limitations.
- Word count: 1512
the economic problems of the 1930's as well as the emphasizing the role that the US dollar should play in the global economy (Daniels and Lever, 1996:145). This essay will first attempt to define the two main institutions of the Bretton Woods system, namely the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank and then seek to examine both organisations and explain the various issues associated with them in terms of creating unhappiness amongst the developing world (Main focus on Africa).
- Word count: 2772
France has passes many anti-terrorism laws such as the Law on Daily Security or another law proposed by the Ministry on Internal Affairs of France. That law facilitates the surveillance of communications allowing the police to obtain communication data from telephone operators, Internet Services Providers and Internet cafes. France has also passed many laws since the attack on the United States of America on September 11th and the later London Bombings. Within 10 days of the September 11 attacks, the EU acted to establish a Union-wide list defining acts of terrorism and appropriate penalties.
- Word count: 1253
However, co-decision only applies to 50% of policy areas and while the EP has only three months to consider legislation in their second reading, and should they not complete the reading in time the Council's common position is adopted. Some could see this is as a punishment for the Parliament should they not bend to the will of the Council, or take too long to complete legislation readings, and the Council of Ministers can let legislation lapse after three months without such "punishment".
- Word count: 2594
Secondly, I will evaluate the objectives of the original EEC. Thirdly, I will give details of the role of the key institutions of the EU. And finally, I will clarify the future aims of the EU. The European Union was first established as European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951, after the Second World War. This community started of with six member states which are the Netherlands, Germany, France, Belgium, Italy and Luxembourg. The ECSC decided to form this community to prevent from outbreak of conflict.
- Word count: 1319
Unit of account is also an essential function of money. It is a standard monetary unit of the cost of goods and services. Currency is an important role in European business and trade. As goods and services is exchanged in return of money. The role of currency is important, as when inflation takes place other countries will be less attracted to export goods to your country. And this will make the purchase power less sustaining. And business will imply to move to other countries where the currency is strong. People also are unlikely to invest in a British bank when the currency declines.
- Word count: 1449
How might ideology and social structure affect the fiscal policy of a democratic government? How universal are the characteristics of these factors?
This reflects differing attitudes to welfare and individualism across the globe. Whilst poverty rates have fallen across the world, inequality is notably higher in the USA than in Europe. * There exist four hypotheses for such intercontinental disparity: 1. Inequality leads to more redistribution. Consider a democratic society, where income distribution appears as: POOR MEDIAN RICH In this society, the median voter is poorer than the average. It is in his interest to vote for a political party that will increase redistribution. As half the population are poorer than the median voter, any party that decrease redistribution will lose at election.
- Word count: 999
The radicals were ultimately unsuccessful and fled to Russia where they founded the Finnish Communist Party. The moderates in the labor movement retained the Social Democratic label and continued to contest elections. The Communist Party and its organizations were banned. The traditional conservative parties of Finland, the Finnish Party and the Young Finns, also underwent political reorganization and merged into the National Coalition Party and the National Progressive Party, following the Civil War. The National Coalition favored a monarchy while the Progressives sought a republican style of government.
- Word count: 1758
The two world wars had the most significant impact on the development of European identity in the twentieth century.' Discuss
Then throughout the renaissance the expansion of geographical knowledge of the world saw the rise in secular political ideology, and two important dates: the 1530s (Reformation); 1532 (Machiavelli's The Prince) saw the identity of Europeans alter as they looked at the Empire as an entity comprised of different states, rather than a singular religious empire. Cultural identity altered during the Enlightenment as Europe was seen as a pinnacle of civilisation; the first time the term 'European civilisation' was used was in 1766.
- Word count: 1744
Turkish discrimination against Kurds and Armenians goes back to the Ottoman Empire when the Ottoman forces killed a large number of Kurds and Armenians. In 1915, the Kurds suffered greatly under the Turkish Ottoman rule ("Kurds"). Moreover, this discrimination continued until the 90's as the government fought the Kurdistan Workers Party and killed many Kurds forcing the remaining ones to leave Turkey. Until very recently broadcasting has only been in Turkish. However, the situation for the Kurds in Turkey has improved since then because it became to an extent legal for radio stations to broadcast in languages other than Turkish
- Word count: 1514