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AS and A Level: European Union

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 8
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    ‘The main democratic deficit in the European Union is psychological, not institutional.’ Discuss.

    4 star(s)

    Dogan (1992) offered the following definition 'people hold the belief, that ... institutions are appropriate or morally proper'. The EU however, as I will explain later is indirectly elected and does not conform to this idea of legitimacy. Using the Western ideas of democracy and legitimacy to come to the conclusion of a democratic deficit is over-simplified as it relates to nation-states, yet the European Union is a unique concept and far removed from the model of a traditional nation-state. This begs the question; shouldn't different versions of democracy and legitimacy apply? This means an examination of the decision-making process is required to establish/disprove democratic and legitimate elements within the EU.

    • Word count: 1589

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Fishing in the EU maritime area is increasingly unsustainable." Discuss this statement with reference to the Common Fisheries Policy.

    "In conclusion to this statement I believe that unless drastic measures are taken, beyond the current measures which are being taken by the CFP I believe that fishing in the EU is becoming increasingly unsustainable to the extent that it may never recover. However with tight regulations introduced by the CFP, and a change in fishing techniques the industry may be able to achieve a harmony with the environment and once again become sustainable. Sources: Geography for A2 Clive Hart"

  • To what extent is European community law supreme in member states?

    "The European Union was developed so that there was a"united states of Europe" as stated by Winston Churchill. This was just after World War Two and its main purpose of a single governing state was to overcome any conflicts between member states and to eventually lead to a single member- Europe. To blossom this idea certain guideline and principles need to be in place this included the ideology that European Community law supremacy over national law. Even though supremacy was in place many conflict did crop up like the famous cases of Factotame, Marleasing and Frankovich but they all to come to the conclusion that European Community law is superior and only national law would be overridden. The pillars of European Community law- primacy and direct effect are very essential in delivering maintenance on European Community law supremacy, as without these pillars it would not be possible to keep this supremacy. So overall I would say European Community law is supreme in member states in a significant way."

  • The UN is an ineffective Peacekeeper. Discuss

    "In conclusion in the area of peacekeeping the UN has a record of abject failures -the worst of which being the genocide in Rwanda and failure to change the status of Somalia as a failed state- punctuated with a few marginal successes such as running East Timor as a protectorate and the successful monitoring of the ceasefire on the Iraq-Kuwait border. Also UN intervention is most successful when conflicts are between two states and there is a clear distinction between the party which the UN should support and that which it should oppose."

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