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AS and A Level: European Union

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  1. House of Lords Reform.

    The House would then be free from the constrains of the adversarial politics and all members of the House would be able to check the governments policies without party interference. Elections to the House: Elections should happen every 10 years in the middle of a Commons cycle. The elections should be on a PR basis, using the AV system.

    • Word count: 500
  2. The Foreign Policy of Great Britain in relationship to the European Union.

    In the 1960s Britain applied twice to join the Community. However French leader Charles de Gaulle, maybe fearing American interference as Britain went in, vetoed British accession. However in 1969, after De Gaulle's resignation, the Labour Government applied again. Negotiations were completed by the following Conservative Government, and in 1973 Britain joined the Community. However the story does not stop here. Britain has been frequently accused of 'braking' the pace of the integration process. The failure of the British to embrace the ideals of European Union has continually led to differences with other Member states.

    • Word count: 4541
  3. The Amsterdam Treaty and The European Union

    For example, an amendment of Article 6(2) EC Treaty allowed the Council acting by a QMV to, in co-operation with the EP, introduce rules to prevent discrimination on the grounds of nationality, this constituted an evolution in the principle of the free movement of persons. Specific competence's such as policies' in relation to regional development, research in technology development and the environment evolved in the 1970's although these were also further amended in the Maastricht Treaty Articles 13 A-T. Institutionally, the Court Structure of the EC was developed as a result of the SEA- the ever increasing workload of the ECJ lead to the creation of the Court of First Instance (CFI)

    • Word count: 2391
  4. The Council of Ministers

    The actual composition of the Council of Ministers varies, depending on the nature of the matter to be considered. When considering economic matters, the individual states will each be represented by their finance minister. If the matter being discussed were to be related to agriculture, however, the council will be made up, as you'd expect, of the member states' agriculture ministers. The organisation of the various specialist councils falls to the president of the Council of Ministers. The post of president is held for 6 months, and is predetermined. As the president of the Council of ministers, he / she would effectively be able to control the agenda, and focus on aspects which they feel are important to their country.

    • Word count: 575
  5. What has been the effect on English law and law making of UK membership of the EU?

    The issue of direct effect has also come around with membership of the EU. The two types of direct effect are vertical and horizontal, vertical direct effect has evolved over the years of EU influence to a point where it is relatively easy for an individual to take a state to court and win. In the case of Marshall v. Southampton Area Health Authority. Mrs. Marshall wanted to work till she was 65 like her male counterparts, but she was made to retire at 62 because of the lower retirement age for women.

    • Word count: 836
  6. Expansion of the European Union

    Judts main argument is based around the economic problem of expansion. He says (para 14) that it would cost 20 Billion DM a year to include the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary. He says these would be "unpopular burdens" for any treasury. He quotes Jane Kramers words "the idea of Europe had been moving only as no-one suffered from it".' He concludes that the only financially viable way forward is a two tier system, new members could not be taken on with the same terms. TMA 01 Dan Whittle U5236871 DD200 P.2 The second part of his essay describes some economic and political trends which he says have undermined the EUs feasibility.

    • Word count: 1223
  7. Discuss the contention that EU environmental policy has been slow to develop because economic and political policies have been allowed to take priority.

    This essay will discuss and question the validity of this standpoint. Economic policy versus environmental policy is an issue that has caused debate for several years because the two are so closely linked. The general viewpoint held by the EU is that the employment of more stringent environmental policy would be very expensive. This decreases the efficiency of the single market, which in turn will have an adverse effect on the economy. This will increase inflation and unemployment. So therefore, the EU has been very cautious and still is, when introducing new environmental policies and this is reflected in the way in which policies are introduced which will be discussed later.

    • Word count: 2293
  8. The Cult Phenomenon

    Coercive psychological systems such as cults violate basic human rights, the rights that are guaranteed by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. By intimidating and silencing their victims and critics, those who profit from any particular cult evade exposure and prosecution for actions recognized as harmful and which are illegal in most countries, actions such as; fraud, false imprisonment, involuntary servitude, intentional infliction of emotional distress. "At the time they joined their particular cult, most people we interviewed had been dissatisfied, distressed, or at a transition point in their lives.

    • Word count: 2536
  9. How similar are the Policies of the Conservative and Labour Parties?

    Election campaign, that early release scheme prisoners had committed 2 rapes. Politics of the last 10 years have increasingly been edging away from the extreme wings and have been collecting in the centre regions of the spectrum. Does this mean that soon we will be faced with two identical manifestos, with only the name to tell them apart? How similar are the policies of the Labour and Conservative parties? Labours economic aims where to encourage sustainable growth, i.e. to create long-term markets, rather than short-term booms.

    • Word count: 735
  10. Should We Join the Euro?

    1961- The United Kingdom formally applies to join the European Communities. 1961- Ireland formally applies to join the European Communities. 1961- Denmark formally applies to join the European Communities. 1967- The United Kingdom re-applies to join the Community. It is followed by Ireland and Denmark and, a little later, by Norway. General de Gaulle is still reluctant to accept British accession. 1971- Applicant countries to the European Communities, namely Denmark Ireland, Norway and the United Kingdom, outline their respective negotiating positions.

    • Word count: 669
  11. To what extent have international courts and tribunals been successful in upholding human rights?

    It was the first time an international court has found Moscow guilty of serious violations in Chechnya. The judges said Moscow had breached an article of the European Convention on Human Rights guaranteeing the right to life. The six plaintiffs received approximately £94,000 in compensation from the Russian government. However, this small fine is very unlikely to act as a credible deterrent to Russia committing human right abuses in the future. Russia is a significant actor in the global political arena. Arguably the most successful is the ECHR. For example in 2010 the ECHR successfully pressured Bosnia into reforming its constitution because it discriminated against the Jew and Roma population.

    • Word count: 871
  12. Types of Democracy and Ways of Participating.

    However in a representative Democracy the government tries its best to be socially representative of their nation 3a) Define Liberal Democracy Liberal Democracy is a form of Representative Democracy. According to the rules of a Liberal Democracy. Elections should be free and fair and the political process should be competitive. Meaning whoever wants to create a political party can create one and run for election for example the elections in Britain are free from corruption, there is an independent election commission that oversees elections and makes sure they are fair, however some people believe that voting under the first past the post system isn?t fair.

    • Word count: 671
  13. To what extent can China be classed as a superpower?

    Same year, 1997, China courted a partnership with America; at an Washington Summit Chinese President Jiang Zemin pledged to seek ?common interest despite differences? in order to ?share responsibility for preserving world peace and stability in the 21st century?, and to highlight Chinese sincerity pledged to stop nuclear aid and chemical exports and end of sale of cruise missiles to Iran. The reason of Chinese government trying to be friends with America and prevent a new Cold War is that it fears of US creating ?web? of Anti-Chinese alliances around China, as it did with USSR, and fear that USA has only one goal ? ?the hegemonic domination of the world?.

    • Word count: 1404
  14. Discuss the view that there is little difference between the basic values of the Conservative and Labour Parties

    These two parties have developed policies on the basis of a vision of how they believed society should be organised. However over time, this battle has declined and this shows that in terms of policies the two parties are very similar. There are reasons for this, firstly during the 1980?s the Conservatives non-ideological approach to politics was disturbed by a rise in Conviction Politics which was essentially Thatcherism. This led to the traditional values of the Conservatives being undermined and an approach to a free market economy being abolished.

    • Word count: 1043
  15. Why are Asymmetrical wars, such as Iraq and Afghanistan so difficult to win?

    Within these wars many civilians often get accidently hurt as Mark Curtis states in Unpeople: Britain?s Secret Human Rights Abuses ?an estimated 10,000-50,000 people including soldiers and civilians have died in Iraq. An estimated 10,000 were civilians.? Asymmetrical wars ask for a different strategy than the military is used to. Fighting insurgency includes fighting the propaganda spread by these forces, and consequently winning the ?hearts and minds? of the populace. One of the main reasons these wars are so hard to fight is that civilians often feel a sense of injustice and of course don?t like the notion of their country being invaded.

    • Word count: 783
  16. To what extent have recent EU developments had an impact on the UK?

    This caused a rift in his party and therefore led to a loss of faith. It was arguably this involvement in Europe which was instrumental to him losing the election, causing another large change as it was then Labour who came in to power in 1997. Moreover, the factor tame case of 1991 established the European law has supremacy over statute law in the UK. This effectively led to a loss of parliamentary sovereignty as a power shift was caused.

    • Word count: 659

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