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AS and A Level: European Union
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- Marked by Teachers essays 8
It is the case that EU law overrides national law when the two conflict. This alone could show a ceding of sovereignty and as a supranational organisation the EU is more focused on working towards greater integration than national interest. Despite this surrendering of power to a higher authority, the EU only becomes the supreme decision making body in specified areas, although areas of national law could be affected without intention. For example, EU environmental decisions may indirectly impact agricultural law in some countries.
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However a major disadvantage of parliamentary questions is due to the fact that the questions are shared about between the political parties according to their strength, therefore the larger party will be given more questions than the smaller parties and this will cause the scrutinizing function of parliamentary questions to be less effective. However supplementary questions allow TDs to scrutinize the government effectively and embarrass them at the same time. Overall parliamentary questions are ineffective when it comes to scrutinizing the government and they have been described as "scripted, predictable, soulless affair" by The Irish Times.
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There is no doubt that increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere will have numerous, long term effects on the State of Israel: a reduction of at least 25% of water availability by the end of the 21st century; a 10cm rise in sea level may lead to coastline retreat of 2-10 meters and to the loss of 0.4-2 square kilometres of coast every 10 years; increase in mosquito populations and their distributions may increase risk of diseases such as malaria; damage to crops due to decrease in water availability; migrations of Mediterranean species northward and their replacement by desert ecosystems from the Negev and an average long-term increase in electricity demand in the order of 3.2% a year.
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How might ideology and social structure affect the fiscal policy of a democratic government? How universal are the characteristics of these factors?
This reflects differing attitudes to welfare and individualism across the globe. Whilst poverty rates have fallen across the world, inequality is notably higher in the USA than in Europe. * There exist four hypotheses for such intercontinental disparity: 1. Inequality leads to more redistribution. Consider a democratic society, where income distribution appears as: POOR MEDIAN RICH In this society, the median voter is poorer than the average. It is in his interest to vote for a political party that will increase redistribution. As half the population are poorer than the median voter, any party that decrease redistribution will lose at election.
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Looking inside the EU there are many institutions the main ones are the European council which has 25 head of state or government, European Parliament which has 25 members and European commission which has 25 commissions. Each of the European Union institutions has a responsibility and each have a right to speak out words from their own country. This is the European Union's most powerful decision-making body. It is made up of the foreign ministers of member states. Other ministers from member states may have an input in topics relevant to their expertise.
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What are the distinctions between Regulations, Directives and Decisions in the Law of the European Union?
This is a general measure that is binding in all its parts and is also directly applicable. In other words, it creates law which takes immediate effect in all the Member States in the same way that an Act of Parliament will take effect in the UK, without any further legislation needing to be created. Examples of regulations include those determining rights of workers, the new '.eu' domain name and the new 'Community Design Right' which confers rights to intellectual property. A Directive, by contrast, is binding upon Member States as to the result to be achieved but it leaves it up to the Member State to decide the form and method to be adopted to realise the Community objectives within that country.
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The European Court of Justice is composed of 8 advocates general and 15 judges. One judge representing each country member of the European Union. All members of the court are appointed for renewable six-year terms by agreement among the EU nations. The court interprets EU treaties and legislation and ultimately its decisions overrule those of national courts, courts have the benefit of the ECJ's opinion before passing judgment In the case of Marshall v Southampton area health Authority, Mrs.
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This represents an imperfection in a potentially competitive market Relatively low rates of corporation tax in Eastern European countries give them an unfair advantage in terms of attracting foreign direct investment. This encourages the practice of 'fiscal dumping', and invites the distrust of countries which use tax competition for attracting FDI. Eastern Europe has attracted �140bn FDI since 1990, and this is set to increase quite markedly following the entry into the EU of countries such as Poland and the Czech Republic in 2004.
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His defensive strategy meant that the South was fighting mostly on their own land which was easier than fighting on the Union land because of the relief of its land. He was also able to have victories at Second Manassas, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. The Confederacy had a good chance of winning if it was not for the equally skilled leader, Grant. Grant was responsible for the turning point at the Battle of Vicksburg which was a massive Union victory and enabled the North to use the Mississippi River as a National highway to transport troops and supplies to military forces.
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Culture has been a great pride to Europeans and a large portion of culture is language itself. One language brings about the idea of it being superior than others; it may also bring European diversity to an cataclysmic end. If English was to be introduced as a working language fewer people may be inclined to learn German, French or Spanish, which are commonly popular choices as a second language in schools across the globe. If a choice is taken for a single language to be chosen, that is the end of Europe as we know it. Although, there are a number of practical problems posed with the current language policy, the introduction of a single language poses an even larger one.
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Assess the effects of imperialism on European countries during the later years of the nineteenth century
As living standards rose, so too did the demand for new goods and services. The European nations believed if population was increase at its present rate, there would be a point in time where they would not be able to support themselves economically. Industry-orientated countries, especially Britain had long begun running an unfavourable balance of trade, which was increasingly offset by income from overseas investments. For instance, West African cocoa earned the dollars Britain desperately needed. Also, industrialisation led to overproduction and low prices, implying the domestic continental market was shrinking.
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Discuss the impact of the Single European Act on European Business and European Economies in General
Independent monetary policy has achieved measurable gains with respect to gross domestic product growth. The singe European market appears to have boosted both the European Union's external trade performance and the volume of intra-community trade. In terms of external trade performance, the European Union has moved from an external trade deficit, to trade surplus in merchandise goods. The European Union - 15 enjoys a rapid increase in Internal and external trade in services and also on investment. With respect to intra-community investment flows, gains have been mostly felt in the United Kingdom and Ireland.
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Although many threats have become apparent to UK businesses there have also been many opportunities. A wider market is accessible for both producers and consumers. There are now for example, over 500 million consumers in the EU following the enlargement in May 2004. The new larger market must also have benefited internet shoppers, as people will trust EU countries rather than wanting to buy products from the Far East for example, and products purchased from some EU countries are likely to be much cheaper in price.
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Describe the main institutions of the European Union and evaluate their roles. United Kingdom joined the European Community, now known as European Union (EU) on 1st January
The European Commission is made is of twenty five members, subject to the approval of Parliament. Interestingly, they do not represent the country from which they come, although they must be nationals of one of the EU countries. These Commissioners represent the interest of the Union as a whole. The most important function of this Commission is that it is the only body that can initiate legislation. It does so for issues that falls under the first pillar, that is under the European Community category, while the power to initiate legislation on second and third pillars it shares with the member states.
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* More Jobs: It is estimated the 3.5 million British jobs are dependent on Britain's membership of the EU. (Source: UK Jobs Dependent on the EU) * Money for Development: The UK has been allocated a total of 15.5billion of European Structural Funds for 2000 - 2006. Over the same period, the UK has also been allocated 120 million for Fisheries Guidance and 961 million for Community Initiatives.(Source: EU development) * A Louder International Voice By working together in the EU member countries can ensure their concerns are heard, and taken more seriously, on the international stage.
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Some gang members may also have relatives that belong to the gang. The head of a gang is called the leader. The leader is responsible for running the gang. The leader of a gang determines the day to day activities and what goes on. Beneath the leader are the "hardcore gang members". The hardcore gang members are usually older members. They are responsible for recruiting new members and keeping the other members in line using fearful tactics (http://www.gangfreekids.org/gangs.html).
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This idea grew and grew and many governments considered the idea of Europe united. These wartime leaders wanted economies of each state to be repaired. They believed Europe could work together to repair their economies and that would enable Europe to compete with the USA and the Soviet Union. The idea of Europe being a world leader was attractive to many governments around this time (before 1950). This period up to 1950 shows the desire for European Unity. During 1950 - 1957 European Unity grew.
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Enlargement has made it necessary that the issues over which QMV are used should be increased. Previously, QMV was used for issues such as agriculture and trade, but now it has been expanded to include more sensitive areas such as immigration and asylum policy (although the UK have an opt-out agreement about immigration). If the new EU Constitution is ratified even more areas will be decided using QMV, thus signalling a further loss of Parliamentary Sovereignty for the UK. However, Parliamentary Sovereignty is still retained in some ways.
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By the Declaration of the Right of Man, new ideas were put forward; everyone were born equal before the law which was contradict with the European powers who still practiced the hereditary hierarchy of status and it proclaimed of France ruled by its own people posed a strong opposition to the despotism rule of the European rulers. It was this sovereignty of the people, that had created a strong feeling of patriotism and it was further strengthened by the 'levee en masse' (the whole population of France was brought into permanent requisition for the defence of the country)
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As according to Voltaire, although "divided into several confessions", the states of Europe "all have the same religious foundation." Even when the label of Christendom was dropped in the 1700's Christianity continued to play a prominent role in the European civilization. T.S. Eliot stressed the centrality of the Christian tradition, saying: "The dominant feature in creating a common culture between peoples... is religion... I am talking about the common tradition of Christianity which has made Europe what it is." He goes on to explain that, "it is in Christianity that our arts have developed; it is in Christianity that the laws of Europe-until recently-have been rooted.
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If, within two years of signing, not all member states have ratified the Constitution, the European Council will consider possible solutions. The Constitution is the first common project of the enlarged Union and brings about a substantial improvement in comparison to the provisions of the Nice Treaty. The constitution will establish the EU as a separate body in law so the EU can sign international agreements as a single bloc rather than as 25 different countries. It will create the permanent post of European Council President that will stop the current rotation system of presidency.
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Role Of the EU? * Promote European Unity (To help and support countries within the EU) * Improve Living and Working Conditions for Citizens (Rights and better living conditions) * Foster Economic Development (Help poorer countries to develop) * Help Developing Countries (Provide funds and Support) * Preserve Peace and Freedom What is the UN? * There are 50 Representatives from 50 different countries * They set out the rights and obligations of member states * They maintain international peace and security * Help solve international economic, social cultural and humanitarian problems. The Role of the UN The powers and functions of the UN are: "To maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principals and the purposes of the United Nations".
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Back here in England, many of the attacks are racially based, for example: last year a white was attacked by Asian youths, just days before the football clash between Oldham and Cardiff. Oldham hooligans contacted members of the Cardiff City 'Soul Crew' which was encouraged by the club's chairman Hamman, by mobile telephone. The two groups then arranged to attack the Asian estate in a act of revenge. These actions resulted in mass riots, some of the worst in English history.
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Two attempts were made to take off with little success. A third, and final, attempt was made. The aircraft rose, only to fall again, crashing and bursting into a ball of flames. 23 people in total died and many lay injured in hospital. It was the worst accident in football history, the darkest day in United's history, and a premature end to potentially the greatest team in British, if not world football at that time. The news stunned not only the people of Manchester, but the entire country and beyond. European cup (1968) Ten years after the Munich air disaster Manchester United were in the European Cup final.
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Using your own examples, discuss whether Nationalism (nation states) is a better way forward than super-nations.
Therefore, ideally, all states should be "nation states". However, for most of history, this has certainly not been the case. The most powerful states up to now have been empires or kingdoms. An example of states coming together to form a nation state could be Italy, 1789 around the time of the French Revolution. For many years, Italy was divided into dozens of separate states. Italians did not think of themselves as Italians but as belonging to a city or region. However, around 1789 these separate states united together to form a nation state.
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