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AS and A Level: European Union
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European Union needs to speak with one voice in order to have an important role in determining how to solve problems concerning the whole world. It is impossible to talk about a union when its members are unable to make decisions in unison. Its inability to have a common attitude towards things happening outside the union became evident when different voices were heard within the union about America's unilateral invasion in Iraq. As members took their places at opposite sides, the question of establishing a common foreign and security policy was raised again.
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Some gang members may also have relatives that belong to the gang. The head of a gang is called the leader. The leader is responsible for running the gang. The leader of a gang determines the day to day activities and what goes on. Beneath the leader are the "hardcore gang members". The hardcore gang members are usually older members. They are responsible for recruiting new members and keeping the other members in line using fearful tactics (http://www.gangfreekids.org/gangs.html).
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Informal roles may be: > Mentor: a player other people look up to such as Roy Keane. > Joker: the practical joker of the team. Ryan gigs is notorious within the united dressing room for winding teammates up. > Trouble maker: Wayne Rooney has a reputation for being hot-headed and causing arguments on the football pitch > Mediator: Gary Neville, one of the main spokespersons for the players union > Enforcer: Roy Keane likes to make points and enforce his ideas A team's performance will be more effective when individual roles are clear, understood and accepted. A leader is a person who rules guides and inspires those who are in his charge.
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British consumers need not worry about eating imported foreign foods from the EU as they all have pretty much the same standards. Problems arise with the unemployment levels, as there are more businesses in every trade the less efficient firms tend to close down leaving the people who were employed in them unemployed. The admin costs are likely to be high as running a trade bloc incurs high costs and it can be quite slow as it takes time to respond to changing economic and political events.
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In 2000, "EU attempted to construct a basic framework for the future regulation of e-commerce" (Pappas 2003). The goal of this directive is to develop the internal market in the EU and harmonize the e-commerce by creating common laws defining the terms of contract at least for those EU countries. It is particularly hard to achieve in the EU because there are several different countries and each one has its own law and legislation. Contracting via internet involves some problems and issues such as the validity of a contract in the web, the e-signature, which jurisdiction and law may apply to you and the problem of the taxation.
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Critically discuss how global economic trend may impact upon the future policies of the European Union. Identify ways in which this may affect leisure and tourism trends within Europe.
Also government intervention is considered as detrimental; hence every aspect of freedom is of fundamental importance. Moreover, liberal economic globalisation also has its own institutions: United Nations clearly plays a role in this, but the stars are the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and arguably the most important of all is the World Trade Organization(WTO). A typical liberal economic region is America, which is also the most prosperous nation enjoying the highest Gross Domestic Product(GDP) per capita(Sardar and Davies, 2003).
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In addition to this the consumer will not have to worry if a British product is safer to consume than a French product because all countries have more or less the same rules, this creates a level playing field for all manufacturers. Another process called mutual recognition means that all member states have more or less the same laws about food, immigration, safety etc. For example food prepared in England will undergo the same procedure, as in Denmark or that a tourist from Thailand will face the same rules in Spain as in England.
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This idea grew and grew and many governments considered the idea of Europe united. These wartime leaders wanted economies of each state to be repaired. They believed Europe could work together to repair their economies and that would enable Europe to compete with the USA and the Soviet Union. The idea of Europe being a world leader was attractive to many governments around this time (before 1950). This period up to 1950 shows the desire for European Unity. During 1950 - 1957 European Unity grew.
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Man United had only previously won it only once in 1968, whereas Bayern have already won it 3 times. The Champions League, also known as the European Cup, first came into play in 1955, and it has almost reached it's 50th birthday. Real Madrid broke the record by winning it an unbelievable 9 times. The European Cup is well known for competitive play towards football. However, in 1985, the occasion got too competitive between Juventus and Liverpool. Football hooligans took it too far, and 350 people got injured. This tragic event was called the Heizel event, and it resulted in English teams being banned from the European Cup for 5 years.
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In a damning report, it was found that the appointments system was said to be slow, unsystematic and unprofessional. It also found that a number of senior judges and leaders of the legal profession did not provide detailed reasons for their assessments, which was a requirement. It has been suggested the current system is still producing a white male dominated judiciary due to the lack of transparency. The goal of the commission set up after Sir Leonard's report is to investigate complaints and review the appointments process, and does not have any role in the appointment of the judiciary or the Queen's Counsel.
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La mthode Monnet: What were the main driving forces behind the supranational integration of the Schuman Plan?
The Second World War was 'the most destructive conflict in human history... it caused the deaths of almost 60 million people2. Britain had been one of the chief powers in the Second World War, having declared war on Germany in 1939 with France. However after 1945 the continental countries of Europe were left in a state of devastation, whereas Britain did not suffer the consequences of the war in the same way. She was separated from the rest of Europe by water and despite suffering intense air raids; was never occupied by German troops.
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* Stabilise agricultural markets. * Guarantee regular supplies of food. * Ensure reasonable prices for consumers. (Dinan, Desmond 1994 pg 326) The Common Agricultural policy replaced the systems in each of the nation states and the "guiding principals were (and are) * A single market-agricultural produce should be able to move freely throughout the community. * Community preference- priority should be given to E.C produce over that of other countries. * Financial Solidarity- the cost of the policy should be borne by the community rather than by the individual member states" (Dinan, Desmond 1994 pg 326)
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They won't be motivated as others. In relation to our business we didn't have good communication in the team. Most of the members weren't motivated and didn't know what they were doing. An example was when we had meetings to discuss about the business. There was communication as the members opted the problems that occurred in our business. Our business was lacking communication, as there wasn't much work to do. Some of the members didn't know their roles and responsibilities. Lacking of communication meant that fewer members knew that we were in loss. The market researchers didn't find out that our posters were taken out.
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The European Union constitution agreed On 18th June 2004 was signed as an attempt to establish values and goals it was also a vital opportunity to provide stability, protect freedoms and legitimise governance of the EU. It is important to scrutinize the constitution to establish if there is a democratic deficit within the composition of European Union. Democracy implies rule by the people, in this case that means the citizens of the EU, the constitution explains that 'Citizens are directly represented at Union Level in the European Parliament' (euabc, 2004).
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Some of its structural changes go on to include operating in partnership with Subsidiaries, Franchisees, and Allied Airlines. These several components come together with British Airways to provide a more effective and smoother working of passenger services. Among these operating divisions, BA remains the major shareholder. However, in cases where BA has a minority share holding, these aircraft operate under the colours of their parent airline. This sharing agreement though successful, could sometimes make it difficult to recognise, who the true operator of a particular aircraft is. BA airways are a vast organisation, running fleets of aircrafts to Varying destinations.
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"Analyse and compare the gains predicted by economic theory from theremoval of (a) tariff barriers (b) non-tariff barriers wi
whose objective was to withdraw the French and German basic industries from the national authority and place them under a European High Authority. The sectoral limitations of the ECSC were felt to be a serious practical handicap and a greater integration was aimed at. This was achieved in 1958 when the European Community (EC) was created by the Treaty of Rome which commits its original member countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands and Germany) in establishing a single market (also known as Common Market)
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Enlargement has made it necessary that the issues over which QMV are used should be increased. Previously, QMV was used for issues such as agriculture and trade, but now it has been expanded to include more sensitive areas such as immigration and asylum policy (although the UK have an opt-out agreement about immigration). If the new EU Constitution is ratified even more areas will be decided using QMV, thus signalling a further loss of Parliamentary Sovereignty for the UK. However, Parliamentary Sovereignty is still retained in some ways.
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To what extent is the European Union, with the Constitutional treaty, an independent, democratic federal state?
It is important how the power distributes between the two government levels. The legislative, financial and administrative functions should be distributed in such a way that both levels of government are equal in status. In a federation it is essential that the two levels of government, whatever might be the jurisdiction of their sphere of action, should be supreme in their jurisdiction. As the federal system is complicated, there should be a clear and easy-understandable written constitution of the federal state, which will divide and explain the duties and responsibilities for government in different levels.
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is the CFSP more rhetoric than a reality. The CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in Maastricht (1992), the other two pillars being the European Community, and Justice and home affairs. The CFSP is based on a system of intergovernmentalism. This means that ...... Maastricht in 1993 was the first time that the CFSP become a working policy, but it has in fact been in formulation for the best part of sixty years.
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His lordship highlights the fact that the centrepiece of the defence's argument was the Doctrine of Implied Repeal2. The defence contended that the Weights and Measures Act 19853 repealed a section of the European Communities Act 19724 and therefore the later act took precedence over the earlier Act. The defence relied upon numerous cases in which implied repeal is substantiated and confirmed such as Vauxhall Estates Ltd v Liverpool Corporation5 and also in Ellen Street Estates Ltd v Minister of Health6. These two cases are heavily relied upon by the defence to establish the doctrine of implied repeal.
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The Commission plays an important part in the executive by being in charge of initiating EU policy, yet the 25 commissioners are appointed, and not elected. The have to be accepted by the European Parliament, an institution that has been directly elected, however the Parliament can only accept of reject the entire Commission, and not individual commissioners. Similarly, the Council of Ministers (a key element of the legislature) is not directly elected, although it is made up of elected representatives from the member states (although they have been elected for their role in the member state, and not as an EU representative for the country).
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Analyse of the effects of price transparency in Europe, with particular reference to the car industry
Previously, price differentials could be quite marked, particularly across different nations for similar goods and services. For example, a family salon car could be priced 40 per cent higher than in Italy, and a popular soft drink could be priced twice as high in Germany as in Spain. These examples refer only to retail prices, but the same could be said of intermediate prices relating to "business to business" activity further up the supply chain. The introduction of the Euro is already having the effect of reducing this price differentials, as better informed businesses and consumers effectively 'arbitrage away' price differentials for similar goods and services by competitively seeking the best deals.
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When the plethora of family members heard the voice of the Seigneur on the tape recorder, it caught them off guard and created a greater effect imprinting his advice on them. Because the Seigneur was a customary, devout Muslim, everyone expected him to write a will on paper. "We thought he [the solicitor] was going to his safe to put back the tape that the devil must have left there to tempt him, and would produce a sensible old envelope sealed in the traditional manner and according to Koranic custom."
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and Electrical and Electronics Engineering (hereafter referred to as IEEE) have taken measures to tackle the issues of professionalism in IT. THE DIFFERENT ORGANISATIONS BCS organisation was established in 1957 to represent the interests of engineers who were primarily working in hardware development. Since than it has developed into a major institution, which represents over 38,000 members working in extremely different professions, be it a fresh IS graduate from university, a Project manager or a UML expert. Over the last 20 years, BCS has gained considerable influence over the government and the academics institutions of UK.
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The EP is a body without power or accountability, and easily dismissed just as a 'talking shop' (Colin Pilkington.) Only 75% of its amendments are accepted by the Commission and the Council of Ministers. For its part, the Commission enjoys a powerful role but is widely perceived as a technocracy as it is only weakly held to account as Parliament can only dismiss the entire Commission and not individual commissioners. Most powerful of all is the Council of Ministers which deliberates in secret and until recently was not legally obliged to listen to the EP's decisions.
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