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AS and A Level: European Union

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  1. Assess The Relative Significance Of Marshall Aid To Moves Towards European Integration Between 1945 and 1954.

    The main condition of Marshall Aid was that the countries receiving it should work together to distribute it, and so the Committee of European Economic Co-operation, originally set up to report on the Marshall Plan, evolved into the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), enhancing the perception of Marshall Aid as being politically motivated - "...it was apparent that to all intents and purposes the programme was the economic complement of President Truman's expressed political intent to organise Western Europe in an ideological alliance against the Soviet Union and Communism."

    • Word count: 1164
  2. Have the changes in the powers and influence of the European Parliament over the last ten years exacerbated or rectified the 'democratic deficit' within the EC Legislative System?

    This legislative procedure is employed in relation to aspects of free movement of workers, economic policy and the common commercial policy. The 'Assent' Procedure is less frequently used but under this procedure, the Council acts after obtaining the assent of the Parliament. The act will only be adopted if it has been duly approved by both the Council and the Parliament. Although the Parliament has no formal mechanism for proposing amendments, the procedure grants Parliament an infinite power of delay and outright rejection.

    • Word count: 2618
  3. How relevant has the concept of the 'rule of reason,' developed in United States anti- trust law, been to the particular circumstances of EC competition law?

    In order to clearly understand the rule of reason and its impact on the EC, one must first look at the U.S example of how to apply to the rule. In the United States, the Sherman Act2 is the landmark legislation with regards to Anti- Trust cases, known in the EC as Competition law. Section 1 of the Sherman Act states that every contract, combination or conspiracy in restraint of trade is illegal and this legislation, if adopted with a wide scope, could potentially lead to a restriction in trade, as most agreements would be caught by the provision.

    • Word count: 2274
  4. Is it possible and desirable to think of migration as a security issue in contemporary Europe? What are the political and conceptual problems associated with this?

    is still open. Therefore it is important to choose when the situation is still under control and problem lies mostly within creating on analytical framework. We still have some time to minimise the risk of global crisis. Buzan's2 analytical framework brought up the idea of securitisation - shifting the problem of migration from 'normal politics' arena to one of national security. It comes to this whenever regime decides to handle certain problems as a clear and present danger to one of vital parts of state's security (statehood, economy or national identity).

    • Word count: 3194
  5. Examples: Shadows of Leadership

    Shadow of Power In an article printed Sunday, August 1, 2004, "Halliburton sues retirees after insurance cut gripes" the shadow of power is evidenced. The dispute is about Halliburton's plan to stop providing health insurance for retirees that are eligible for Medicare. In response to three complainants Halliburton Co. filed a lawsuit. Their reasoning is that in doing so the dispute would be resolved quickly. What's unusual is that in a case like this a company would usually respond after suit has been filed against them.

    • Word count: 1928
  6. An examination of British policy with regard to European Unity during the period 1945 to 1949: Why did Britain did Britain diverge from the emerging European Community and was it justified in doing so?

    Thus its is evident that Britain had shifted it's position of power in Europe utterly. Not only had Britain lost an opportunity to lead Europe, but following the Schuman doctrine "their place in future political developments" (Croft, 1988: 617). Thus is outlined the general sequence of events regarding British policy and its reaction to conceptions of European Unity. This period of policy was so important as it shaped and molded British/European relations to come. Indeed, abstaining from Europe during these years cited, had the considerable ramification of a belated entry to the European Economic Community; A community that Britain would not join until 1973 under the governance of Edward Heath.

    • Word count: 5831
  7. The European Community Merger Regulation

    'Control' is defined as the possibility of exercising decisive influence, by whatever means, for example through the acquisition of assets or shares, or by contract. The thresholds defining where a "Community dimension" exists are calculated by reference to the turnover of the merging companies. A concentration will have a Community dimension if: * the combined world-wide turnover of the undertakings concerned amounts to at least ECU 5 billion; and (b) the aggregate Community-wide turnover of at least two of those undertakings is more than ECU 250 million; or * the combined world-wide turnover of the undertakings concerned is more than ECU 2.5 billion; and (b)

    • Word count: 2463
  8. Effectiveness and Democratic Legitimacy: An Investigation of the European Democratic Deficit

    European governance can still be legitimate, only that the basis of democracy must be on output legitimacy. Citizen participation in the decision-making process must nonetheless be improved. Features of the Democratic Deficit European integration moved from negative to positive integration. It was initiated primarily for economic reasons concerned with the removal of barriers to the establishment of a common market for trade and undistorted competition. However, it soon became evident that a single market also required an entirely new system of economic regulation for intervention into policy areas that may not directly distort free trade, but nonetheless offer unfair advantages to some member states.

    • Word count: 3187
  9. Who benefits and who loses when a common market for labour is extended to more countries? Explain your answer with reference to economic theory and to EU experience. Comment also on the future implications of the 2004 enlargement.

    On 1st May 2004, the European Union was enlarged to twenty-five member countries. The ten additions include Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The 2004 enlargement will extend the common market for labour due to an increase in countries. This will have a large impact on most of the member countries, whether a beneficial impact or negative impact is what I will discuss in this essay. A larger common market will obviously increase the current advantages already experienced within the EU.

    • Word count: 1592
  10. The role of the EU on the Cyprus issue

    The Cyprus problem has always been of international concern since it was creating a very dangerous and heavily militarized environment in a highly risky geographical location; it was also a potential source of clash between two important allies of NATO (Greece and Turkey), that USA and other European powers didn't want to see in war - something like that would jeopardize the very existence of the organization and would destroy the security of the whole region. The Cyprus problem emerged as a European problem with the entrance of Greece in the Union in 1981.

    • Word count: 3071
  11. Explain the process by which EU law is made and the process by which it is implemented and enforced in Britain

    The EU has four main institutions which help to promote these aims. The first is the Council of Ministers, which comprises one minister from each member state. Usually the Foreign Minister is a states' main representative, but another minister may attend if their relevant subject matter is being principally addressed. Twice annually the heads of each state meet in the European Council to discuss broad issues of policy and the European Council is actually the principal decision-making body of the entire EU.

    • Word count: 2103
  12. In terms of power and influence, how did the structure of the international system differ in 1914 from that off 1880?

    Wilhelm by 1914 had amassed 17 dreadnoughts he was the nearest competitor to Britain's 29. In 1880, the British had a total naval tonnage of 650,000 tons and Germany had a measly 88,000 tons. Then from 1900 to 1914, Britain doubled their tonnage from 1,065,000 tons to 2,174,000 tons but Germany tripled their tonnage from 285,000 tons to 964,000 tons. Though all the way from 1880 to 1914 with Germany challenging the British navy for supreme command of the seas, the United States was closely following Germany and Britain. Britain in her day had the largest colonial empire and the largest navy. It has been said that the sun never set on the British Empire.

    • Word count: 1981
  13. Is there still a role for NATO?

    It is first perhaps worth considering in what way NATO's role in the modern world is changing. As has already been said, NATO may no longer really be viewed as a defensive organisation. This is not to say that it no longer has a credible role, however, and many would argue that it can be used as a useful tool in solving international problems. There are several examples of this suggestion in action. For instance, in 1995 the former Yugoslavia descended into anarchy.

    • Word count: 1643
  14. Europe? Its character.

    As according to Voltaire, although "divided into several confessions", the states of Europe "all have the same religious foundation." Even when the label of Christendom was dropped in the 1700's Christianity continued to play a prominent role in the European civilization. T.S. Eliot stressed the centrality of the Christian tradition, saying: "The dominant feature in creating a common culture between peoples... is religion... I am talking about the common tradition of Christianity which has made Europe what it is." He goes on to explain that, "it is in Christianity that our arts have developed; it is in Christianity that the laws of Europe-until recently-have been rooted.

    • Word count: 899
  15. "What is the importance of the concept of citizenship in the development of EC law after Maastricht? Has it given a new impulse to creating, extending or safeguarding citizens' rights? Or has it merely given new rhetoric to old concepts of free movement".

    the idea is that there should be a level playing field and that if you move to a country with EC membership there is no need to have work visas, it is intended that once all members are fully integrated and adopt the euro dollar that there will no longer be a division of the countries and that citizens will be able to have the same rights of the people whose country they are living in at that moment in time.

    • Word count: 2362
  16. Boston University - A Presidential Search Gone Wrong

    The overall questions I am posing is whether or not the structure for governance of universities needs to be evaluated and in how far the academic and administrative community as well as local community can contribute to a fair and strong community culture. History of the Presidential Search at Boston University When Boston University started its search for a new president, John Silber, the old president who had become chancellor and was on the Board of Trustees, still had enormous influence and championed the former NASA chief Daniel Goldin's appointment, despite substantial criticism and concerns.

    • Word count: 2899
  17. Explain the different exchange rates and the advantage and disadvantages

    The supply of the currency as well as demand for the currency can affect the exchange rate value. A rise in the supply of the currency can cause a change in the value. The diagram below shows this. The diagram shows that an increase in the supply can lead to a depreciation of the exchange rate value. In reverse a decrease in the supply of the exchange rate can lead to appreciation of the exchange rate value. The other type of floating exchange rate is a Managed Floating exchange rate.

    • Word count: 1336
  18. Immigration to the EU - Good news or not?

    be such a rush of people that Britain won't be able to cope, so people from these countries are being denied this right. If you are not an EU citizen, you do not have an automatic right to stay within it. An application for asylum or work permit must be made for this to be legal, and often these are not given. Illegal immigration is a big issue for the EU. Just looking at the front pages of tabloids there are examples of the right winged attitudes that Europe is being 'swamped' with immigrants, 'taking our jobs' or 'claiming our benefits'.

    • Word count: 1284
  19. What are the arguments for and against the proposals to reform the European Constitution?

    If, within two years of signing, not all member states have ratified the Constitution, the European Council will consider possible solutions. The Constitution is the first common project of the enlarged Union and brings about a substantial improvement in comparison to the provisions of the Nice Treaty. The constitution will establish the EU as a separate body in law so the EU can sign international agreements as a single bloc rather than as 25 different countries. It will create the permanent post of European Council President that will stop the current rotation system of presidency.

    • Word count: 913
  20. George Washington: America's Greatest Leader

    The influence Europe had on the United States of America after the colonies won independence and especially when Washington served his first term in office declined, but the fact remained that it was not eradicated, it still existed. For example, the outbreak of the European war in 1793 against France required the Americans to assist the French. The French supported the Americans during the American Revolution and expected the Americans to pay off their debt by supporting them in return.

    • Word count: 1650
  21. International Institutions - Council of the EU.

    Role Of the EU? * Promote European Unity (To help and support countries within the EU) * Improve Living and Working Conditions for Citizens (Rights and better living conditions) * Foster Economic Development (Help poorer countries to develop) * Help Developing Countries (Provide funds and Support) * Preserve Peace and Freedom What is the UN? * There are 50 Representatives from 50 different countries * They set out the rights and obligations of member states * They maintain international peace and security * Help solve international economic, social cultural and humanitarian problems. The Role of the UN The powers and functions of the UN are: "To maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principals and the purposes of the United Nations".

    • Word count: 608
  22. "The World We're In," by British author Will Hutton - A discussion of America and the EU.

    The white part of Europe is its more balanced perspective in both politics and economics. Its companies compete effectively in the world market, and yet European workers have relatively sane working hours, plus 4 weeks' vacation to boot. Europe of late has adopted a much more cooperative stance on the world stage than America, acting multilaterally and generally taking a more compassionate and accomodating view. In an interconnected world, the European attitude is surely more productive. No argument there, and Americans would do well to think about this soberly. The black parts of Europe get only passing mention.

    • Word count: 4960
  23. European scrutiny committees

    These documents provide the backbone of the arrangements for influencing forthcoming developments. These are considered by the Select Committee which generally meets once a week whilst the House is sitting. Following such meetings the Committee publishes a report on the documents considered, highlighting any which it considers raise questions of legal and/or political importance, with any recommendations for further consideration by the House. It may also call witnesses to give oral or written evidence as necessary. Working in this manner, MPs have the opportunity to debate the issues and to question government ministers before they take decisions in the meetings of the Council of the European Union.

    • Word count: 1502
  24. How have Hooligans Destroyed the 'Good' Name of Football?

    Back here in England, many of the attacks are racially based, for example: last year a white was attacked by Asian youths, just days before the football clash between Oldham and Cardiff. Oldham hooligans contacted members of the Cardiff City 'Soul Crew' which was encouraged by the club's chairman Hamman, by mobile telephone. The two groups then arranged to attack the Asian estate in a act of revenge. These actions resulted in mass riots, some of the worst in English history.

    • Word count: 804
  25. "To What Extent Does Democratic Deficit Exist in the EU"

    The commissioners are appointed by their national governments, but they are not national representatives and must swear and oath of office, renouncing all defence of national interests. Appointees must be acceptable to the other commissioners, to other governments and to the European parliament. The Commissions key task is to ensure that EU policies accord with the treaties, and it does this in 5 ways. It has the powers of initiation that is; it has the sole power to initiate new legislation, and can also draw up proposals for entirely new policy areas - as it did with the Single European Act - and pass them on to Parliament and the Council of Ministers for discussion and adoption.

    • Word count: 1682

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