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AS and A Level: European Union

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 8
  1. Marked by a teacher
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Membership to the EU and Loss of Sovereignty

    4 star(s)

    It is the case that EU law overrides national law when the two conflict. This alone could show a ceding of sovereignty and as a supranational organisation the EU is more focused on working towards greater integration than national interest. Despite this surrendering of power to a higher authority, the EU only becomes the supreme decision making body in specified areas, although areas of national law could be affected without intention. For example, EU environmental decisions may indirectly impact agricultural law in some countries.

    • Word count: 812
  3. Marked by a teacher

    "'A troublesome partner.' Using examples, to what extent would you say this comment accurately describes the United Kingdom's membership of the EU since 1973"

    4 star(s)

    the notion that Britain is the EU's 'awkward partner,' per se, is the 'wait and see' approach with regard to the possibility of EMU. This non-committal policy creates many dilemmas. Firstly, it confuses prospective and current inward investors, (exemplified by car manufacturing) and the British public as a whole.4 Secondly, and perhaps more imporatantly, it brings about the question of the implementation of a 'two-speed' Europe with an 'inner core' of nations whose integration is accelerated. Further fudging of the issue will inevitably mean that Britain's voice in Europe in terms of shaping the Union's future monetary and fiscal policy is significantly diminished.4 If Britain's future is within the Euro, this policy is unquestionably harmful to Britain's future interests.

    • Word count: 3352
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Has the creation of the Single European Market been a success?

    4 star(s)

    There was realisation that major institutional change was necessary with the main purpose the elimination of the still existent barriers, extending the EC's competence and laying the foundation for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), therefore a legislative programme was proposed in the White Paper, which sought to identify the areas within EC where the problems existed and deal with them through a new approach known as mutual recognition and equivalence. According to Archer C. in The EU, p. 71, the widely circulated Cecchini Report showed that to maintain the barriers to the freedom of movement of goods, services, labour

    • Word count: 2227
  5. Marked by a teacher

    ‘The main democratic deficit in the European Union is psychological, not institutional.’ Discuss.

    4 star(s)

    Dogan (1992) offered the following definition 'people hold the belief, that ... institutions are appropriate or morally proper'. The EU however, as I will explain later is indirectly elected and does not conform to this idea of legitimacy. Using the Western ideas of democracy and legitimacy to come to the conclusion of a democratic deficit is over-simplified as it relates to nation-states, yet the European Union is a unique concept and far removed from the model of a traditional nation-state. This begs the question; shouldn't different versions of democracy and legitimacy apply? This means an examination of the decision-making process is required to establish/disprove democratic and legitimate elements within the EU.

    • Word count: 1589
  6. Marked by a teacher

    The European Union and UK Businesses

    3 star(s)

    The treaty was seen as foundational in bringing together Europe in peace after the Second World War. Some of the main enemies during the war were now sharing production of coal and steel, one of the very resources which previously had been central to the war effort. How Tesco is Affected Tesco would be affected in a postive way as with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, Tesco would benefit from the free trade alliance and would also be able to benefit from the cheap steel prices means that Tesco would find it cheaper to build stores and depots, this means then that Tesco can then return the profits to the shareholders and the customers if they wish to do.

    • Word count: 2573

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Fishing in the EU maritime area is increasingly unsustainable." Discuss this statement with reference to the Common Fisheries Policy.

    "In conclusion to this statement I believe that unless drastic measures are taken, beyond the current measures which are being taken by the CFP I believe that fishing in the EU is becoming increasingly unsustainable to the extent that it may never recover. However with tight regulations introduced by the CFP, and a change in fishing techniques the industry may be able to achieve a harmony with the environment and once again become sustainable. Sources: Geography for A2 Clive Hart"

  • To what extent is European community law supreme in member states?

    "The European Union was developed so that there was a"united states of Europe" as stated by Winston Churchill. This was just after World War Two and its main purpose of a single governing state was to overcome any conflicts between member states and to eventually lead to a single member- Europe. To blossom this idea certain guideline and principles need to be in place this included the ideology that European Community law supremacy over national law. Even though supremacy was in place many conflict did crop up like the famous cases of Factotame, Marleasing and Frankovich but they all to come to the conclusion that European Community law is superior and only national law would be overridden. The pillars of European Community law- primacy and direct effect are very essential in delivering maintenance on European Community law supremacy, as without these pillars it would not be possible to keep this supremacy. So overall I would say European Community law is supreme in member states in a significant way."

  • The UN is an ineffective Peacekeeper. Discuss

    "In conclusion in the area of peacekeeping the UN has a record of abject failures -the worst of which being the genocide in Rwanda and failure to change the status of Somalia as a failed state- punctuated with a few marginal successes such as running East Timor as a protectorate and the successful monitoring of the ceasefire on the Iraq-Kuwait border. Also UN intervention is most successful when conflicts are between two states and there is a clear distinction between the party which the UN should support and that which it should oppose."

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