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Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the use of referendums and initiatives in the USA

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Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the use of referendums and initiatives in the USA A referendum is an electoral device it is used nationally through America. This allows voters to veto a bill the state legislature passed. Some states require that changes to the constitution must be approved state-wide. In other states changes in state tax must be approved this way. An initiative is a process that allows citizens to bypass their state legislature by placing proposed laws and in some states constitutional amendments on the ballot. South Dakota first adopted this in 1898 and 23 states followed. Referendums and initiatives are similar, the main difference being that rather than citizens taking the initiative, referendums follow from something that the state legislators have already done. The initiative mechanism acts as a check on the activities of the legislature. This is because legislators are more likely to introduce certain reforms and measures if the initiative mechanism exists, because it is likely that if they do not, an initiative on the issue will be launched. ...read more.


A related argument is that citizens cannot be expected to make decisions on complex issues that they, unlike elected representatives, do not have the time to learn about. A frequent criticism of citizens' initiatives is that they are only really accessible to well-resourced organisations and interests, and that the process is therefore hijacked by special interest groups promoting their own interests. An argument in favour of referendums is that you can use to solve political problems, particularly for incumbent governments, for example, if an issue divides the party in power, a referendum can help to find a solution without the party broke. Another argument, governments need a clear popular mandate to bring fundamental changes that were not part of the platform with which they campaigned at the outset. C'est tout particuli�rement le cas lorsqu'on envisage de modifier la constitution, d'autant plus si elle a elle-m�me �t� approuv�e par voie r�f�rendaire. Il existe �galement divers arguments contre le fait de recourir aux r�f�rendums. ...read more.


usage comme instrument politique qui servira les besoins du parti au pouvoir et non pas les int�r�ts de la d�mocratie.Similarly, according to opponents of the referendum, if the executive has the power to determine the circumstances justifying the holding of a referendum, it will make use as a political instrument to serve the needs of the ruling party and not interests of democracy. Aussi, puisque le taux de participation lors de r�f�rendums est plus faible que lors d'�lections nationales, selon eux l'argument voulant que les r�f�rendums renforcent la l�gitimit� des d�cisions politiques ne tient pas la route. Also, since the turnout at referendums is lower than in national elections, they believe the argument that referendums reinforce the legitimacy of political decisions do not hold water. Cependant, en Suisse (o� se tient chaque ann�e un certain nombre de votes de d�mocratie directe), des sp�cialistes croient que plus de 45 % des �lecteurs participent � la d�mocratie directe, car m�me si le taux de participation aux r�f�rendums tourne autour de ce pourcentage, les diff�rents votes attirent diff�rents �lecteurs. ?? ?? ?? ?? Hinali Pandya ...read more.

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