• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13

How have political sociologist understood globalization? Globalization is perhaps the central concept of our time. Yet, a straightforward definition of globalization

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Written by Gino Seguna, RHUL How have political sociologist understood globalization? Globalization is perhaps the central concept of our time. Yet, a straightforward definition of globalization does not exist, either among academics or in everyday conversation. While most conceptions focus on various aspects of increasing interdependence be it economic, cultural, technological, and the like, at a basic level globalization refers to growing interconnectedness. Most definitions incorporate a notion of a growing magnitude of global flows such that one can truly speak of a global society. Essentially, globalization is a highly complex interaction of forces producing integration and disintegration, cooperation and conflict, order and disorder. But it is this interconnectedness that gave rise for the notion that globalization is changing the nature of human society, was replacing the sovereign state system with a multi-layered, multilateral system of 'global governance.' Regarding the nature of globalization, there is a discussion about whether the world has in fact entered a new, unique historical period. Some scholars certainly do discard the notion that we have entered a fundamentally new era. There are many, however, who see globalization as a genuine restructuring of social organization. Some have questioned how global present conditions really are. In the present era, many argue we have not witnessed an intensification of global interaction, but rather regional clustering of activity (G. Thompson 1998; Weiss 1998; Hirst and Thompson 1999). Furthermore, some have argued that the degree of economic interconnectedness exhibited today does not differ markedly from the period 1890-1914 (Jones 1995; Hirst 1997). Globalization has led many to explore the relationship these processes have to modernity (Harvey 1989; Giddens 1990; Beck 1992). ...read more.

Middle

World culture encompassed increasingly global conceptions of the correct kind of national society, thematization of individual rights and identities, inclusion of non-European societies in international relations, and greater formalization of ideas about humanity (1992: 59). Globalization in this period also included the growth of many other trans-national linkages and standards. A "struggle for hegemony" phase lasted from the 1920s until after World War II, giving way to a period of "uncertainty" since the 1960s. One particular ongoing debate within the theories of globalization is the prospects of democratic institutions at the global level. In his text 'Democracy and Globalization' David Held argues the case for what he calls "cosmopolitan democracy". While democracy has become the standard of political legitimacy internationally, Held argues that more and more nations favour democracy although its strength is being progressively limited by the results of globalization. For Held, Regionalism as well as globalization both undermines the notion of the nation state. In a cosmopolitan mode, David Held maintains that globalization requires the extension of liberal democratic institutions (including the rule of law and elected representative institutions) to the transnational level. (The World Bank, Poverty in Age of Globalization, http://www.worldbank.org/globalization, 19.05.2005) Nation state-based liberal democracy is inadequately equipped to deal with adverse side effects of present-day globalization such as ozone reduction or growing material inequality. According to this model, "local" or "national" matters should remain under the backing of existing liberal democratic institutions. Power is fundamental to Held's analysis of global transformation, as he regards it as being shifted more and more to multi-level dimensions. ...read more.

Conclusion

1997: 169). Their authority is rooted in a world culture: a set of universally applicable models that define who are legitimate actors in world society, what goals they can pursue and how they can pursue them. While world polity models define sovereign states as key actors, enabling authorities to construct collective goals and devise the means or programs to produce them, state officials are not the only ones engaged in such authoritative creation of value (1980: 112). The approach to world culture theory, advocated by Robertson, states that globalization is "the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole" (R. Robertson, Globalization, 1992: 8) This theory places emphasis on the way in which participants in the process become conscious of and give meaning to living in the world as a single place. Globalization therefore "refers both to the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole (Robertson 1992: 8). It involves the crystallization of four main mechanisms of the "global-human circumstance": societies (or nation-states), the system of societies, individuals (selves), and humankind; this takes the form of processes of, respectively, societalization, internationalization, individuation, and generalization of consciousness about humankind (Robertson 1991: 215-6; 1992: 27). Rather than referring to a multitude of historical processes, the concept above all captures "the form in terms of which the world has moved towards unicity" (1992: 175). This form is practically contested. Closely linked to the process of globalization is therefore the "problem of globality" or the cultural terms on which coexistence in a single place becomes possible (1992: 132). World culture denotes the multiple ways of defining the global situation, conceived as responses to this shared predicament. (http://www.sociology.emory.edu/globalization/theories03. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Political Philosophy section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Political Philosophy essays

  1. Assess the view that most power in modern western societies is held by people ...

    government than others, however they point out that governments must minimise conflict by consulting with a range of interest groups. Elite Pluralism answers some of the criticisms of classical pluralism. It acknowledges the existence of under-represented interests and accepts that power is to some degree concentrated in the hands of a few elites.

  2. An analysis of the Marxist perspective on religion

    Furthermore it uses the principle of dialectics, which is that both theses and antitheses should be used to arrive at a synthesis or conclusion. As can be seen the Marxist perspective on religion is not a straight-forward one, but a complex mix of various factors.

  1. An analysis of the Marxist Perspective on Religion

    Also, somewhat ironically, Liberation theology, a combination of Christian and Marxist ideas, has caused people in Central America to actively seek political equality in society.

  2. Communism VS Democracy

    own careers and conducting their own affairs; equality before the law; and universal suffrage and education. Such features have been proclaimed in great historic documents, for example, the U.S. Declaration of Independence, which asserted the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; the French Declaration of the Rights

  1. Power and Politics in Organizations: Public and Private Sector Comparisons

    As noted by Child and Heavens (in this volume), the universal condition of governmental and other public-sector organizations is that they are subject to constitutions, laws, administrative regulations, judicial decisions, executive orders, and so on.

  2. Evolution of Democracy and the Athenian Constitution

    While Pericles, in his grandiloquence, may have overstated the case it is true that the common citizen was much better off than in preceding times as Xenophon explains (On Democracy and Oligarchy, p: 39)

  1. To what extent is the global system now multipolar?

    Relating it back to Syria; USA, France and the UK all voted for a resolution to be implemented in Syria condemning Assad?s actions. However, the resolution cannot be carried out because China and Russia have vetoed it, this puts into perspective that in terms of the global security it very

  2. Compare Hobbes and Locke's views on the obligation to obey the law.

    This frustration arises from the fact that moral principles must perforce be left to the interpretation of the individual conscience, and may be suspended or partially suspended as far as external action in accordance with them is concerned, through the prevalence of insecurity.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work