• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13

How have political sociologist understood globalization? Globalization is perhaps the central concept of our time. Yet, a straightforward definition of globalization

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Written by Gino Seguna, RHUL How have political sociologist understood globalization? Globalization is perhaps the central concept of our time. Yet, a straightforward definition of globalization does not exist, either among academics or in everyday conversation. While most conceptions focus on various aspects of increasing interdependence be it economic, cultural, technological, and the like, at a basic level globalization refers to growing interconnectedness. Most definitions incorporate a notion of a growing magnitude of global flows such that one can truly speak of a global society. Essentially, globalization is a highly complex interaction of forces producing integration and disintegration, cooperation and conflict, order and disorder. But it is this interconnectedness that gave rise for the notion that globalization is changing the nature of human society, was replacing the sovereign state system with a multi-layered, multilateral system of 'global governance.' Regarding the nature of globalization, there is a discussion about whether the world has in fact entered a new, unique historical period. Some scholars certainly do discard the notion that we have entered a fundamentally new era. There are many, however, who see globalization as a genuine restructuring of social organization. Some have questioned how global present conditions really are. In the present era, many argue we have not witnessed an intensification of global interaction, but rather regional clustering of activity (G. Thompson 1998; Weiss 1998; Hirst and Thompson 1999). Furthermore, some have argued that the degree of economic interconnectedness exhibited today does not differ markedly from the period 1890-1914 (Jones 1995; Hirst 1997). Globalization has led many to explore the relationship these processes have to modernity (Harvey 1989; Giddens 1990; Beck 1992). ...read more.

Middle

World culture encompassed increasingly global conceptions of the correct kind of national society, thematization of individual rights and identities, inclusion of non-European societies in international relations, and greater formalization of ideas about humanity (1992: 59). Globalization in this period also included the growth of many other trans-national linkages and standards. A "struggle for hegemony" phase lasted from the 1920s until after World War II, giving way to a period of "uncertainty" since the 1960s. One particular ongoing debate within the theories of globalization is the prospects of democratic institutions at the global level. In his text 'Democracy and Globalization' David Held argues the case for what he calls "cosmopolitan democracy". While democracy has become the standard of political legitimacy internationally, Held argues that more and more nations favour democracy although its strength is being progressively limited by the results of globalization. For Held, Regionalism as well as globalization both undermines the notion of the nation state. In a cosmopolitan mode, David Held maintains that globalization requires the extension of liberal democratic institutions (including the rule of law and elected representative institutions) to the transnational level. (The World Bank, Poverty in Age of Globalization, http://www.worldbank.org/globalization, 19.05.2005) Nation state-based liberal democracy is inadequately equipped to deal with adverse side effects of present-day globalization such as ozone reduction or growing material inequality. According to this model, "local" or "national" matters should remain under the backing of existing liberal democratic institutions. Power is fundamental to Held's analysis of global transformation, as he regards it as being shifted more and more to multi-level dimensions. ...read more.

Conclusion

1997: 169). Their authority is rooted in a world culture: a set of universally applicable models that define who are legitimate actors in world society, what goals they can pursue and how they can pursue them. While world polity models define sovereign states as key actors, enabling authorities to construct collective goals and devise the means or programs to produce them, state officials are not the only ones engaged in such authoritative creation of value (1980: 112). The approach to world culture theory, advocated by Robertson, states that globalization is "the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole" (R. Robertson, Globalization, 1992: 8) This theory places emphasis on the way in which participants in the process become conscious of and give meaning to living in the world as a single place. Globalization therefore "refers both to the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole (Robertson 1992: 8). It involves the crystallization of four main mechanisms of the "global-human circumstance": societies (or nation-states), the system of societies, individuals (selves), and humankind; this takes the form of processes of, respectively, societalization, internationalization, individuation, and generalization of consciousness about humankind (Robertson 1991: 215-6; 1992: 27). Rather than referring to a multitude of historical processes, the concept above all captures "the form in terms of which the world has moved towards unicity" (1992: 175). This form is practically contested. Closely linked to the process of globalization is therefore the "problem of globality" or the cultural terms on which coexistence in a single place becomes possible (1992: 132). World culture denotes the multiple ways of defining the global situation, conceived as responses to this shared predicament. (http://www.sociology.emory.edu/globalization/theories03. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Political Philosophy section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Political Philosophy essays

  1. Is the Liberal perspective on world politics too idealistic?

    This can in turn prevent conflict. Organisations such as Amnesty International and other Human Rights groups and the introduction of the International Bill Of Human Rights in 1946, are there to look after the core value of the liberal theory, which is the freedom and equality status of the individual.

  2. To what extent did the key political ideas directly Influence change and development in ...

    However, coupled with this was the fact that the government was still of totalitarian stock and therefore had only reached the pivotal stage in Marxist theory, the dictatorship of the masses. There was no way that this could have progressed towards the final utopia.

  1. Indonesia: Transition and Prospects for Democracy

    but support always went to Golkar. According to the 1945 Constitution, the president has a very strong executive position. Suharto was only accountable to the Assembly of People's Congress (MPR) dominated by Golkar, which supported Suharto fully; he was also Supreme Commander of the military (Santoso, 1997).

  2. An analysis of the Marxist perspective on religion

    The relationship between the worker and the employer changed greatly. One could ask himself had the Communist Manifesto been written at any other time would the theory have panned out as it did? The people weren't any less religious before the Industrial Revolution, yet Capitalism in its truest form did not exist until this had begun.

  1. Breaking down the Walls: A Discourse of Ideology and "Otherness"

    Wright best states this as he says, "These fantasies were no longer a reflection of my reaction to the white people, they were a part of my living, of my emotional life; they were a culture, a creed, a religion," (Wright 74).

  2. Is humanitarian intervention justifiable?

    ?simplistic politics.? This is when conflicts have been simplified to a basic good versus bad concept in which complexities of potential intervention and its consequences are ignored or belittled and certain aspects have been exaggerated such as the amount of atrocities committed or murders that have occurred.

  1. To what extent is the global system now multipolar?

    with the free movement of labor and trade contributing to its success. But the economy of the EU as whole took a huge blow with nation states such as Portugal, Italy, Ireland and Greece requiring a large amount of support to just keep the system ongoing.

  2. Compare Hobbes and Locke's views on the obligation to obey the law.

    an omission (not raising a hand), but refraining from this omission (i.e. raising a hand) would be very costly for them. If he says ?I propose we do X. If anyone objects please indicate by taking a triple backward somersault? then consent would be indicated by an omission (not doing the somersault), but refraining from this omission (i.e.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work