• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Is it possible and desirable to think of migration as a security issue in contemporary Europe? What are the political and conceptual problems associated with this?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Is it possible and desirable to think of migration as a security issue in contemporary Europe? What are the political and conceptual problems associated with this? International migration is more and more eagerly connected to the process of globalisation (rapid global integration) and development of transnationality. It's important to underline that international migration is something transitional by definition, hence not solely modified by 'new' global issues. Those, however, gain much more importance - this is mostly caused by swift changes in economy, politics, technology and culture. Until recently, migration growth ratio was perceived as being slower than one of population growth. Latest reports changed this image. Last report of UN Population Division brings the number of migrating people to 175 million (according to definition whereas migrant is a person living outside his country for over 12 months. This number has then doubled since 1975. Over 60 per cent migrants live in developed countries - making migrant one out of ten citizens. In less development countries this ratio is 'slight' different - one out of seventy. Worth mentioning is that although North-North and South-South directions of migration flow account the largest number of people, the growth ratio is highest with South-North1. On this grounds scholars defy 'migration crisis' phenomenon. This started the world-wide discussion about the risks and dangers 'migration crisis' involve. The centre point of this discourse lies within Europe. The notion to define migration as a direct danger to national security or as a natural advent of contemporary international relations (accounting certain amount of risk) ...read more.

Middle

Finally, with the destruction of the iron curtain new immigrants flows from Eastern Europe arrived in Western Europe. This direction of migration flow is yet somewhat different. At least its perception by migration-targeted states is different. Due of their cultural and historical ties to Europe, East Europe migrants gained Advantages over immigrants coming from Mediterranean (being - actually - THE main migration source5 for Western Europe). The 1999 Eurobarometer opinion poll question: "Are the benefits form the presence of immigrants from non-European Union countries?" brought quite interesting results. 40 per cent answered YES and 48% said their country would be "better off" without their presence. This shows the hardship of policy makers trying to carry out migration policies: an important number of the public opinion is not in favour of an integration policy. The 1957 Treaty of Rome, which established European Economic Community (EEC), laid down freedom of movement of workers (along with free movement of capital, goods and services). However, this only referred to workers moving between the original six member states. The much larger flows from outside the EEC were seen as a matter for national regulation. The unplanned settlement and emergence of multicultural societies in EU countries led to differing national responses. Mid 1980's common migration and integration policy cooperation was non existent. Schengen Agreement (1985) gave birth to freedom of movement zone (within fixed borders of states). But Schengen was not a part of the European Community framework, and initially included only France, Germany and the Benelux. Efforts and cooperation within EC developed in late 1980's, and were given addend impetus by the Maastricht Treaty offer. ...read more.

Conclusion

The government report on Finnish Security and Defence Policy 200110 says: The effects of globalization are mainly positive, but there are also problems. Globalization provides a chance to strengthen overall security, and as the interdependence of nations, economies and societies increases, it becomes easier to jointly resolve security problems. Multiculturality is, therefore, a risk not a danger. The same goes for migration: the globalisation is a good thing, the official Finnish policy document insists, but there are risks in it - migration being one example. The distinction between risk and danger11 is important one. Dangers are objective issues independent from the subject threatened by them. They are often conceived as external to the subject. Risks, in contrast, are issues that at least partially are products of actor's doing and choices. Thus they are not external to subjects, but internal. * * * From the basis of danger / risk distinction it can be reasoned that the moral necessity to dismantle the dangers, whereas risks have to be managed and lived with. Then my answer to paper's opening question, whether migration can be perceived as a security problem and whether it is desirable, consists of two points: 1) Migration is handled as a state security issue, sometimes in terms of a danger (Russia), sometimes in terms of a risk (Finland) 2) It is desirable to discuss migration rather as an internal policy issue, than as a question of external security. I personally believe that only possible solution for a long - term coexistence between native and immigrant citizens of Europe is a multicultural European society. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level European Union section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level European Union essays

  1. Disneyland Resort Paris, Case Study

    by making Disney characters more European), for it would deform Disney's image and what the park essentially is (and what it differentiates it), adaptations should be made to other elements of the product portfolio (for more details on the product portfolio, please refer to Appendix 2 - Marketing Mix). i.e.

  2. Why did the witch-craze happen in Early Modern Europe?

    Christianity began to consign the rival religions, Jewish and Pagan, to the Kingdom of Satan, this is shown through the illustration of Satan, a new creation as there was no standard image of the Devil in medieval art. Many of the features newly assigned to the Devil were originally those

  1. The Institution of the European Union and Theories.

    Parental leave directive This gives both parents the right to take unpaid time of work to look after their children, up to the child's fifth birthday. All firms must apply with these and this can also have an effect on a firm as replacing the person can incur training costs

  2. Why are developing countries unhappy with the global arrangements under the Bretton Woods system?

    hugely beneficial in aiding the crippling situation in the developing world (Stiglitz, 2006). The 'dumping' of produce on global markets also adversely affects the global trading system as it results in price deficits which negatively affects economic growth and therefore sparks reductions in employment and social development rates (Stiglitz, 2006).

  1. Critically discuss how global economic trend may impact upon the future policies of the ...

    GDS is an inexpensive and accurate way of handling vast quantities of data and inventory, allowing airlines to have a wide distribution network and facilitating yield management. Well known GDSs include Galileo in Europe and Abacus in Asia. Nowadays, GDSs further enhance global safety and security.

  2. Explain how groupthink and groupshift affect group decision-making with reference to contemporary management research

    Direct Pressure on Dissenters Sometimes a group member who questions the rightness of the goals is pressurised by others into concurring/agreeing. A group leader or prominent group member may use power Such behaviours lead to uncritical thinking, acquiescence and conformity in decisions.

  1. What does citizenship mean in the European context?

    Democracy is safeguarded in that way. And citizenship? Citizenship on this view must remain in the exclusive domain of the Member States through whose authority the Community and Union may function with legitimacy Consider first Article 8 itself.

  2. The Institutional Consequences of Domestic Politics on Africa's International Relations and Regional Cooperation.

    of the force, Anambra State Government in alliance with Market traders invited a traditional crime busting outfit called 'Bakassi Boys'. The Boys used the African Charm and magic. Machete was their major weapon. With Machete, they were able to dictate any vehicle carrying any armed robber or anybody who had shaded blood before.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work