• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

La mthode Monnet: What were the main driving forces behind the supranational integration of the Schuman Plan?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

La m�thode Monnet: What were the main driving forces behind the supranational integration of the Schuman Plan? Many consider Jean Monnet to be the founder of European unity. Born in Cognac in 1888 he became an established coordinator in international affairs during the two world wars. Yet it is the invention of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) for which he is best recognized. This was the first economic community to be set up in Europe, and was announced in 1950 by Robert Schuman, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs at the time. It became known as the Schuman Declaration, and proposed the pooling of French and German resources of coal and steel under a 'High Authority', i.e. supranational integration on an economic basis. Dell believes that the plan was promoted as a first step towards a federal Europe1. Although it was really instigated by the French, there were four key players in the run up to the ECSC. France, Britain, the United States and Germany had been directly involved in the cataclysmic world wars of the twentieth century and had to deal with the aftermath. ...read more.

Middle

France was undoubtedly the most active of the driving forces behind the supranational integration of the Schuman Plan. Security was clearly a key concern in the midst of warring nations, but there were important economic factors to be considered when investigating French motives for European integration. Monnet claimed that it was a matter of economic survival for France to establish joint control of the Ruhr. European economies were struggling after the war years but Germany had the opportunity to recover using its steel industry. France did not want to fall behind what was potentially the strongest nation in Europe. The aim of the European Coal and Steel Community was 'the establishment of a common economic system', which may be seen as France's guarantee of keeping a check on German economic development. No matter what way the Schuman Plan of 1950 is translated, Monnet believed that pushing for a more concrete economic relationship between the nations would eventually lead to a more established European union politically. His goal was that Europe would ultimately become a federation, thus overcoming the former problem of warring nation-states. Jean Monnet was not the first to come up with the idea of European integration. ...read more.

Conclusion

However if it were not for the further motives of the Truman administration in the US, and the willingness of Germany to participate, the European Coal and steel Community would never have transpired. 1 E. Dell, The Schuman Plan and the British Abdication of Leadership in Europe, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 16. 2 R. Palmer et al, A History of the Modern World, ninth edition, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002, p. 801. 3 M. Dedman, The Origins and Development of the European Union 1945-95, London: Routledge, 2000, pp. 21-23. 4 Dell, op. cite., p. 8. 5 Dell, op. cite., p. 9. 6 D. Arter, The Politics of European Integration in the Twentieth Century, England: Dartmouth Publishing Company Limited, 1993, pp. 118-119. 7 A. Carls et al, '"Functionalism" and "Federalism" in the European Union', The Centre for Public Justice, http://www.cpjustice.org/stories/storyReader$724, 2002. 8 I. McLean et al, Oxford Concise Dictionary of Politics, second edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 2003, p.194. 9 E. Haas, The Uniting of Europe, London: Stevens and Sons Limited, 1958, p.455. 10 'The Schumanplan Declaration', Leiden University Historical Institute, http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/history/rtg/res1/declaration.html, 01/03/2004. 11 Arter, op. cite., p. 122. 12 Dedman, op. cite., p. 63. 13 Dell, op. cite., p.16. 14 Europa Gateway to the EU, http://europa.eu.int/ecsc/results/index_en.htm, 14/05/05. 15 D. Urwin, Western Europe since 1945, fourth edition, London: Longman Inc., 1989, p. 105. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level European Union section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level European Union essays

  1. A clear explanation of key underpinning economic theories relevant to the EU.

    *will concert their normal systems in line with the government conversation plan in each country *be able to take euro notes and coins in retail stores in the Republic of Ireland and the Netherlands in January 2002, this has

  2. The French Revolution

    Paine was responsible for politicising the lower orders and demanded social reforms including free education, old age pensions and family allowances, all of which were to be financed from income tax. Therefore, the French revolution created many ideas of anarchism based on the principles taught through the ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers.

  1. Free essay

    Has British Politics been Europeanised

    Ultimately, it is held that the "...British industry and finance will be constrained by European regulations."23 However, it is important to note that it is not a mere one way, top-down process. Any imports that come from Europe are usually modified, so that they fit in to the social structure

  2. Transformation of the U.S. Hegemony in Europe through NATO after the Cold War

    Moreover, NATO was considered as the most useful tool for the legitimization of U.S. role in Europe after the Cold War. Reunification of Germany as a full member of NATO, new sovereign states of the Eastern and Central Europe and their institutionalization for democratic governance, together with the adaptation of

  1. Why did the witch-craze happen in Early Modern Europe?

    It appears that despite the split between Catholicism and Protestants they both showed a preoccupation with demonic power in the 16th and 17th Centuries. To many Catholic reformers the Devil became increasingly frightening, it was claimed by Catholics that the rise of Protestantism itself was the work of Satan, this

  2. Evaluate the view thatEuropean integration and not, extended cooperation between states, was the onlyconceivable ...

    Especially, there is a view that the single unity of European community was established basically to achieve such a durable peace between France and Germany. In history, they had been at war with each other three times in the preceding eight decades.

  1. Economic and political integration between the member states of the European Union means that ...

    The Maastricht Treaty introduced the European currency. In March 1998, the European Commission proposed the participation of 11 Member States, including Portugal, in the euro area as from 1 January 1999. Euro became the single currency and the European Central Bank took over the responsibility for the single monetary policy decisions.

  2. 2. Main Body

    Spain, because the Union will diminish financial support for Spain and give priority to the new members.3 2.1.2 Using these criteria, analyse the possible accession to the E.U of Turkey. The Turkish access to the EU is a delicate subject with a lot of arguments which talk against the incorporation.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work