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AS and A Level: Middle east

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  1. Free essay

    Why was the invasion of Iraq so controversial?

    Blix requested more time for further inspection that was supported by Russia, France and Germany, but the U.S. indicate intention to begin military action March 2003. Due to this, there was a division of attitudes internationally and nationally about Iraq, the U.N. permanent members of the Security Council known as the "P.5" were split. The U.S.A. commencement of military action, supported by the U.K. preceded a second U.N. resolution as it took place before the U.N. concluded its view on W.M.D., thus other P.5 members were unwilling to support military action prior to Blix's assessment, and Blix's team were unable to finish their inspection.

    • Word count: 699
  2. Question to the King of Jordan. In the wake of the Arab Spring, a better business environment and more job creation must be part of any real program of change. I would hence ask His Majesty King Abdullah II to outline his vision of this very change for Jo

    This overall "Arab malaise" was further exacerbated by the perverse effects of globalization: creating more inequalities in the distribution of wealth, widening the gap between rich and poor, mercilessly destroying all forms of cohesion within societies, and breaking them into individual lonely and depressed souls.

    • Word count: 447
  3. Rationales of The Iraq War

    the Rationales for

    • Word count: 8
  4. Pre-Islamic Arabia

    Because there were no holy literature and scarcely any formal worship or information about the Gods, there were few moral customs and the Arabs were very relaxed about their religion. The Ka'ba housed at least 300 different idols and so Mecca was central to polytheistic beliefs at the time. The Arabs believed in an all powerful God called Allah (The chief god), who ruled over all the other gods such as, Allat (His Wife), Al-Mannat (the Goddess of fate)

    • Word count: 537
  5. Free essay

    The State of Irael is not the Promised Land

    outsider response this shows that even though the Jew are meant to be the chosen people and live in the promised land, God does not protect them from their invaders therefore it can truly be said that Israel is not the Jewish Promised land. It can be seen from Biblical transcripts that the state of Israel is the Promised Land. This is featured particularly in Genesis, and Deuteronomy, where the Land of Israel was promised as an everlasting possession of the Jews.

    • Word count: 899
  6. Arab israeli Conflict

    This was to bring Jews together into a homeland. The Arabs also have a valid claim to the land. After the Roman Empire fell many Arabs drew together and conquered Palestine in the 7th century. These Arabs became know as the Palestinian Arabs. They lived there for hundreds of years until the Turks took over the area and the Arabs came under Turkish rule in the 16th century, this lasted until 1914 and it was this that made Arabs dream of an independent Arab state.

    • Word count: 807
  7. What are the long term Jewish and Palestinian claims to the land of Israel?

    However, the Arabs believed that Palestine was their land over the Jews. The claim the Arabs had was their idea of 'continuous settlement', where they would say that they had lived there for 2000 years and farmed the land, built towns etc, even when the Jews has left, and so they felt the Jews had no right to jut take it after so long. Due to both of the cultures wanting this land, we can see that the Jews and Arabs are not going to live together peacefully.

    • Word count: 553
  8. Why did the events of 1948 and 1967 lead to the creation of a Palestinian refugee problem? Why does that make peace less likely today?

    The Jews agreed to this plan, but the Arabs were furious, for they were losing half the land when they thought they should have all of it in the first place. On the 14th of May, 1948, the British left the land and the borders were established, and immediately the Arabs attacked the Jews land. The Arab Armies lost, and with that also lost a lot of there land. Due to this, a lot of Arabs were now living in Jewish land, and so fled to refugees in Arab countries.

    • Word count: 745
  9. Why was the World Trade Centre attacked by terrorists on 9/11?

    Osama Bin Landen, an Islamic fundamentalist, the man who US intelligence officials said was to be the prime suspect behind the September 11 hijacking attacks. Bin Laden's anger with the United States stems form the 1990 decision by Saudi Arabia (his home country) ignoring his proposal of providing an army of Mujahideen to defend the kingdom, and allowing the US to use there territory to stage several attacks upon Iraqi Forces in Kuwait. After the US victory, the US military presence became permanent.

    • Word count: 707
  10. Why have attempts to implement the peace settlement of 1993 failed? The long running feud between the Arabs and Israelis has been going on for hundreds of years

    After many tiring months of meetings, Yasser Arafat repeated his 1988 assertions: the PLO would recognize the state of Israel, wanted peace, and renounced terrorism and violence. This was a historic event in the Middle East history as it was the first time the Arabs and Palestinians had met face to face in secret which bridged a huge gap between the 2 states. The first stage of the agreement was withdrawal of Israeli troops from 60% of Gaza and from the West Bank town of Jericho.

    • Word count: 728
  11. Why was the State of Israel Declared in 1948?

    On the 29th of November 1947 the United Nations passed a resolution of the calling of Jews around the world to re-establish their own state. But the British were cheating both the Jews and the Arabs because they said that were going to help the Jews to re-establish their homeland and also said to the Arabs (Palestinians) that they were going to help them defeat the Jews and take them out of Palestine. But when the British could not handle it in Palestine to stop the two sides from fighting they said that they where going to leave Palestine and hand over the problems to the United Nations.

    • Word count: 787
  12. Why are attempts to find a peace settlement proving so difficult? The Palestinians and the Jews have been fighting over the land of Palestine

    I think the peace agreement was not fully carried out because the hatred and mistrust between the two sides and also because of the ongoing disagreements between them. The trouble began at around 1880 because the Jews wished to settle in Palestine, these Jews were called Zionists. After WWI Britain was given a mandate (where a country controls another country until they are deemed fit to rule themselves) of Palestine, the Palestinian saw this as a betrayal because during the war Britain had said they would be 'prepared to recognise and support the independence of the Arabs' so the Arabs rebelled against their Turkish rulers and found themselves ruled by Britain.

    • Word count: 856
  13. It seemed like an ordinary night. The soft whine of the wind echoed throughout the vast hall. The lifeless portraits, on the walls, stared gloomily at

    Trevor held the radio up to his mouth and whispered "No, you must have left it somewhere else." He continued to make his way across the room, "Okay, thanks for looking anyway," came the reply. Trevor placed the chunky radio into his back pocket and headed toward a door labelled "Security." Suddenly there was a great "BOOM," from outside. Trevor jumped out of his skin. His heart was pounding like a drum. He leant against the wall and took a deep breath. "Calm down it's only a bit of thunder," he muttered to himself "get you together." He took another deep breath and then exited through the nearby door.

    • Word count: 936
  14. Burundi Refugees

    The largest recorded movement in recent history followed tribal-based genocide in Rwanda, Africa. Over 1 million refugees had escaped to neighbouring countries. Here's an example of refugees in Burundi: Burundi's war began in late 1993, triggered by the assassination, in October of that year, of the country's first democratically elected president, Melchoir Ndadaye, a Hutu (name of the tribe he belonged to). Fighting between mainly Hutu rebels and the military, which was dominated by Tutsis, caused many deaths and rendered large swaths of the country unsafe. Hundreds of thousands of people fled to neighbouring countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Tanzania).

    • Word count: 623
  15. History-Arab/Israeli conflict section B

    In the letter was a promise to Lord Rothschild from Lord Arthur James Balfour, it stated that the government was in favour of "the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object," it also said in " it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."

    • Word count: 787
  16. A line in the Sand

    There are estimates that more that 20 million people were left homeless after the construction of this line. Who said lines were boring, not me! However, it runs deeper than that. Not only did people have to move, more than one million people were butchered on the construction of this line. The positioning of this line has been the cause of three wars: three bloody brutal wars. Now can I ask you, who in the right mind would make such a line as this? They would have to be mighty inhuman to draw a line that would kill a million people.

    • Word count: 736
  17. Is Religion Necessary is Today's society?

    If religion was not involved, many of the millions of Jews killed might still be living today. Another example of a war is the dispute between Palestine and Israel that has been going on for thousands of years is over 'Holy Land', Judea. It all started when Judea was conquered by the Romans and renamed Palestine. Palestine was then later conquered by the Arabs who have been living there for thousands of years. Following the Balfour Declaration in 1917, Palestine was granted to Britain as a League of Nations mandate to build a national home for the Jewish people.

    • Word count: 707
  18. Choose 3 events which are particularly important in the history of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Describe your chosen events and explain how they have shaped the views of todays a) Israeli Jews and b) Palestinian Arabs.

    This resulted in hatred of the British rule especially among extremist Jewish terrorist groups like the Irgun when in July 1946 they entered the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, which were the British military headquarters in Palestine, and set off an explosion killing 88 people. Despite this act of terrorism against the British and many others similar there was still worldwide sympathy for the Jewish immigrants. This pro-Jewish sympathy is still present today and is constantly being reinforced by events such as Holocaust Day, recent films such as "Schindler's List" and the teaching of the Holocaust in the school curriculum.

    • Word count: 893
  19. " One person's freedom fighter is another person's terrorist" is a common statement used to describe the different perspectives about terrorism or conflict around the world.

    Al-Qaeda is an international terrorist network led by Osama bin Laden. Thousands of volunteers from around the Middle East came to Afghanistan as warriors fighting to defend fellow Muslims beliefs and culture. It seeks to free the Muslim countries from the influence of the West and replace their governments with fundamentalist Islamic culture. After al-Qaeda's September 11, 2001, attacks on America, the United States launched a war in Afghanistan to destroy al-Qaeda's bases there and overthrow the Taliban who provide a safe haven for Osama and his fellow fighters.

    • Word count: 865
  20. Western offensive in the Mediterranean: The Crusades.

    Jerusalem is the objective of the crusades. To capture Jerusalem and its holy saints, namely the Holy Sepulchre, Christ's tomb. From 1096 to 1291 thousands of christians from the latin west headed to Palestine convinced that their salvation would come in liberating Christ's place of rest. The first crusade in 1096 came in two waves, the first made up of common people, the peasantry, which was wiped out by tthe Turks; and, the second, made up of lords. They managed to take Jerusalem on the 15th of July 1099 by inflicting a tremendous massacre upon the muslim population.

    • Word count: 548
  21. 'Read and synthesise information from two extended documents about a complex subject' - Subject: Israel's 'Security' Wall.

    As a result of this war the Israelis gained a lot more land, extending their borders. This extra land, including the city of Jerusalem, is not referred to as the occupied territories. Since that time there have been two Palestinian uprisings protesting the Israeli occupation of their land. The latest 'intifada' began in September 2000 and since that time there has been an escalation in a cycle of terror on both sides. The building of the wall is in effect the latest development in this cycle.

    • Word count: 902
  22. Poverty and Inequality causes terrorism - Discuss.

    The idea of the World Bank is to help poor countries and eradicate poverty entirely, they say they only invest money into large schemes E.G dams or power plants that will help the country to get out of poverty but it can be just as easily argued that the World Bank only invests money into such schemed because they know they will get there money back. As a citizen of such countries understanding the eastern Banks and how they are basically making sure that they will never become more powerful, this will cause a deep hate for eastern world.

    • Word count: 829
  23. How far do the policies of the PLO between the founding movement in 1964, and the signing of the Israeli PLO Accord in 1993?

    Consequently the Israeli armed forces flew 2000 miles to Entebbe and killed the Palestinians, therefore freeing the hostages. Hijackings became less common, but the use of violence against Israeli targets still continued. However in 1988 Arafat chose peace which was the total opposite to that stated in the National Charter, and that the signing of the PLO Accord in 1993 enforced this change of view. '...It is time to put an end to decades of confrontation and conflict,' Arafat rejected the use of terrorism publicly and excepted the existence of Israel.

    • Word count: 874
  24. Why was the United Nations Resolution 242 not acceptable to both Israelis and Palestinians in 1967 and the years after?

    Also being on higher ground puts them nearer to Syria and gave them strength. It meant that they had better borders including water ones to mean that there was a lower risk of invasion. Also they would want to have the country as a whole widened to give them more land to give them protection. Also the land they want to own consists of recourses including water and oil, which are vital for survival. Water for drinking, and cleanliness, and oil for selling purposes to make money, and also their own fuel.

    • Word count: 838
  25. What changed between the 1980's and the early 1990's to make many Israelis and Palestinians support the peace efforts of Prime minister Rabin of Israel and Chairman Arafat of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation?

    Curfews were set up, and when there was violence towards them it was met with violence in return. The effect of this produced many deaths of Israeli and Palestinian soldiers. The Intifada gained world wide support for the Palestinians, as pictures were aired on TV, and shocked the world by them seeing sights such as tear-gas and rifles against the Palestinian children. Within Israel itself there was becoming an enormous awareness of the Intifada and what was happening around them, also there was the thought that young Israeli men who were born into this life would start becoming de-humanised.

    • Word count: 749

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent is the current 'road map to peace' likely to be more successful in achieving peace in the Arab-Israeli conflict than any of the previous attempts in the last 30 years?

    "I do not think the 'Roadmap to Peace' will be successful. It will end up like the previous attempts at peace in the Middle East; Camp David, Madrid and Oslo, all of which failed. In my opinion there is no reason why the current Roadmap to Peace will be any different to these previous failures. The Roadmap has already failed its first target in May 2003, and does not seem to be heading towards any kind of peace. The leaders write the agreements but the people of Israel and Palestine have to live with them, many people on both sides still do not accept the right for the other to exist. Also there are still extreme terrorists groups who are never going to be happy with peace, and are going to jeopardise it every time. Violence in The Middle East has become a way of life for the people who live there, and its possible that that will never change."

  • To what extent do the Israelis and the Palestinians each have history on their Side?

    "In conclusion whilst either party in the Palestinian Israeli conflict could easily construct a case, using differentiating historical data, for having historical rights to today's Israel. However due to Israel's maintenance of territorial integrity and diplomatic pressure, historical precedent ensures that they have ultimately have all of history on their side and indeed the right to remain in Israel. James Robertson A.H.C 1001 1 Samuel 14 : 14 2 Samuel 16 : 11 3 Samuel 17 : 2 4 Anthony Bubalo Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade ; Australian Embassy Tel Aviv 14/10/02"

  • Assess who or what is to blame for the Palestinian refugee problem

    "This source could help us to reach a conclusion about who is responsible for the refugee problem because it gives us a huge insight into the situation. It includes real images and footage and interviews with eyewitnesses who know what's going on. Examples of Israelis blaming Israel add to the many other aspects making it an excellent source to look at for a Palestinian point of view. However, the interviewees were clearly carefully selected to support Pilger's biased opinion. It leaves us wondering what the motives of the eyewitnesses were and why no supportive images to Israel were shown. Even points given by people supporting Israel were made to look unjustified. There is too much left unseen for this source to lead us to a firm conclusion."

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