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AS and A Level: Middle east

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  1. U.S Policy Options Towards Iran's Nuclear Programs

    Following the breakdown of these negotiations and the resumption of uranium enrichment the matter of Iran's nuclear program was referred to the United Nations Security Council in 2006 (British Broadcasting Corporation). Initially, American foreign policy preference appeared to favor regime change along the lines of the U.S policy in Iraq in the early stages of the crisis once the extent of Iran's nuclear program was revealed. President Bush went so far as to label Iran as part of an "Axis of Evil" along with North Korea and Saddam Hussein's Iraq in his 2003 State of the Union speech.

    • Word count: 1302

    After being a week into the war an interview was held in Tehran by Iranian journalists. They asked the people whether they liked the idea of US Marines occupying Baghdad and most of them responded positively. It seemed that the American intention of encouraging other people in the Middle East to overthrow their governments and establishing democracies was working. Once the actual war was over and the United States military occupied Baghdad, the Bush Administration then went on to dismiss al the Sunnis from the Iraqi military and police force and went on to help the Shiites set up their own government.

    • Word count: 1650
  3. Israel and Iran

    This would assure the different Zionist factions that they would receive some degree of representation in the Knesset. Another compromise between the various religious Zionist groups was that the Israeli state would keep the Sabbath, ensure the observance of dietary laws in state institutions, maintain Orthodox control over laws concerning personal status(for example marriage and divorce) and allow different educational streams in school including Orthodox. There was also to be no definition of the nature of the state and no fixing of its boundaries.

    • Word count: 1295
  4. UN and Iraq: The Weakest Coalition

    (Glanz 2007) This is not a solitary occurrence; the news consistently runs stories of murders and bombings from Iraq every day of the week. Frequently, the United Nations resorts to public condemnations after such attacks occur that were aimed at its' organizations. The results in these condemnations further solidify the argument that the United Nations' attempted humanitarian mission in Iraq will fail. One of the leading points of views regarding condemnations made by the United Nations contends that these "condemnations can antagonize states and harden their positions, leading to precisely the opposite of the intended effect." (Mingst and Karns 2004)

    • Word count: 1490
  5. "The core of the Arab-Israel Conflict is territorial, it's all about land." How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.

    The complexity of the issue is the result of three factors: the city is holy for the devotees of Christianity, Islam and Judaism, namely. Because of the heterogeneous population, achieving a viable and durable amount of peace within the city is a continually tedious task due to the common cases of riots, protests and the general discrepancy of opinions and religious sensitivities. This taxonomy Jerusalem is run with is unrealistic and this causes both geopolitical and religious problems. What instigates the Jerusalem problem even further is that fact that there is no straight forward answer to it.

    • Word count: 1107
  6. Free essay

    why some palestinians dont agree with terrorism

    A critical reason for Palestinians to oppose terrorism is the sanctions they receive from Israel and other western countries. Palestinians receive sanctions because of terrorism acts Hamas carry out which in turn frightens Israelis to tighten security and enforce sanctions. Israelis turn a blind eye and forget to see the damage this causes to Palestinians and the economic crisis they face. The sanctions which reveal reports claiming "warn rising levels of unemployment's and poverty challenge a family's ability to provide itself with enough to eat". People living in these conditions have become very irate and just want conditions to get back to normal so they can carry on with their lives; this causes families to give up on retribution and just focus on improving their daily life which is suffering.

    • Word count: 1871
  7. What are the main differences between the beliefs of Palestinian Arabs and Israeli Jews?The main difference between the Palestinian Arabs and the Israeli Jews is that they both believe they own

    Now that the Jews believed they, once again, had a place to live in Palestine it once again caused conflict with the Arabs. The Arabs also believed that the British were on their side. In 1914 the British made a promise to the Palestinians to support them and maintain Palestine as their homeland. They said they would immediately expel the Turks living there and the Arabs would have the land to themselves. Another issue that did and still does cause conflict between the Arabs and the Jews is Jerusalem.

    • Word count: 1625
  8. Theodore Herzl, the man credited with being the founder of modern Zionism.

    In 1984, due to the prevailing anti-Semitic atmosphere in France, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer in the French army, was falsely accused of passing military secrets to the Germans. He was unjustly charged with treason and sent to exile in the infamous penal colony on 'Devil's Island'. Herzl witnessed mobs shouting "Death to the Jews!" and resolved that the only solution for the Jewish people, was mass exodus from their present environment, to a resettlement, establishing a territory of their own - a Jewish national state.

    • Word count: 1111
  9. What happened to the Palestinians as a consequence of the 1948 War? Now internationally known as Israel, this significant area of land (approx 10,000 square miles

    In the late years of the 19th century, anti-semitism in Russia and then France became more and more severe. In 1865 a writer, Eugen D�hring, called for the extermination of all Jews. Some Jews believed that they could tackle the problem with assimilation and just try to blend in with the population whereas most Jews realised that they would only be safe in a state of their own. It was then that the Jewish movement to reclaim their homeland, Zionism was founded. Originally they were open to excepting any site as a homeland but history's biblical connections led them back to Palestine.

    • Word count: 1778
  10. Assignment Two: The Arab Israeli Conflict Question One:What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Palestinians and the Israelis?

    Adding to the Zionist belief that Palestine is rightfully theirs, is a passage in the bible that states God chose the Jews as his special people and gave to them the land of Palestine in which to forever reside. However, many orthodox Jews believe that Theodor Herzl and his comrades were people with very weak religious belief; they saw "jewishness" as a race rather than a religious community. They see Zionism as a revolt against Judaism, an enemy of the Jewish faith that called not to religion, but to nationalism, colonialism and even racism.

    • Word count: 1348
  11. World Issues Paper- The Israeli-Palestinian ConflictWhen thinking of terrorist actions, what exactly do you think of? Just imagine yourself in a place where

    First and foremost, I am going to speak about where the United States stands amidst all this. Both the United States and the European Union believe that they share a common vision of the two states, Palestine and Israel, living side by side in peace and security. President Bush spoke at a White House news conference with European Union (EU) Council President Jose Aznar and EU Commission President Romano Prodi, after Pentz 2 three and a half hours of talks with them. The talks were part of the annual summit between the United States and the European Union.

    • Word count: 1438
  12. Are suicide bombers psychological disturbed or brainwashed by external forces After the attacks on New York and the pentagon on September 11th

    This can be seen by the motivations of Mohammed Sique Khan one of the London bombers. He said on a supposed Al Qaeda video that he was motivated by " the gassing imprisonment and torture of his people" this shows that the terrorists are not psychologically disturbed but have a motive to their actions and a firm belief in killing themselves for the cause. It can also be seen by the fact September 11th was provoked by the American involvement in Islamic countries such as Saudi Arabia and their support of Israel.

    • Word count: 1050
  13. Israel-Palestine Conflict

    The First World War became the turning point in the history of the Middle East for Jews and Arabs. It brought Britain onto the stage. In July 1915 the promise was made between Sherif Hussein and Sir Henry McMahon and was called the McMahon Promise. Arabs were promised independence, which they desired so much. But two years later the Balfour Declaration was established on 2nd November 1917, as a "declaration of sympathy". Britain needed help with the war to win. Without consulting the Palestinians, the British government offered to support the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine while "it being understood that nothing shall be done that may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing no-Jewish communities in Palestine" and preserving the rights of Europe's Jews in their countries of origin (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balfour_Declaration_1917 ).

    • Word count: 1297
  14. Book Review: Seeds of Terror

    Al-Qaeda has encouraged local groups to carve out autonomous Islamic areas that can be linked together worldwide. Much like fascism and communism before, their goal is political power and world dominion, but mainly to replace democracy with Islamic Shariah law. Indonesia and its neighboring countries have become fertile ground for the terrorist network al Qaeda. In fact, nations like Indonesia, which at 200 million has the world's largest Muslim population. The terror in Bali could have been prevented exclaims Ressa, as she tells her readers that Indonesian police had had the names of every single one of the Bali plotters well in advance.

    • Word count: 1183
  15. The Jewish State

    They are debarred from filling even moderately high positions, either in the army, or in any public or private capacity. And attempts are made to thrust them out of business also: "Don't buy from Jews!" (D'Avigdor,1988). These events are the underlying causes of publication of the Jewish State. Theodor Herzl is considered to be the father of what is known to be Zion or the Zionist Movement. He was born in 1860 in Budapest and was raised as a Jewish - German in Germany.

    • Word count: 1321
  16. GCSE Coursework: The Holocaust

    Jews were also forced to sell their business to Aryans for very low prices. The Nazis 'encouraged' the Jews to leave Germany by setting up a government office for Jewish emigration. They were evicted from their homes and made to live in homes designed especially for Jewish occupation. They were forbidden to do a few things aswell, these were things like forbidding them from buying cakes and chocolate, disallowing them from running shops or businesses, forbidding them from buying radios and even stopping them from owning a dog. A lot of these things were designed to either: A.

    • Word count: 1531
  17. Question 1 - Jews and Palestinian beliefs for right to land

    And so the conflict of who had the right to land began. This is just the foundation to the argument of who has the right to the land, during my coursework I am going to investigate and consider some of each side's belief about their right to land. The Jews believe that they have the right to land because 'they were there first'; they lived there for around 1000 years, until they were forced out by the Romans. Over the next 1900 years, Jews settled around Europe and America. However, in Europe they were given few rights; this was due to 'Anti-Semitism'.

    • Word count: 1080
  18. To what extent is the current 'road map to peace' likely to be more successful in achieving peace in the Arab-Israeli conflict than any of the previous attempts in the last 30 years?

    UN troops were brought in, and things seemed to be heading the right way towards peace. However the first major peace negotiations were in 1977 when the President Carter of the USA offered to act as mediator for President Sadat of Egypt and President Begin of Israel, the leaders of the two sides at that time. The negotiations took place at Carter's holiday home Camp David. Sadat and Begin agreed to negotiate a peace treaty and establish democratic relations. Egypt would recognise Israel's right to exist and Israel would gradually retreat from the Sinai Peninsula.

    • Word count: 1444
  19. Why has it been so difficult to bring peace in the Middle East?

    The horror of innocent people dying in September 11, 2001, organised by Bin Laden has got a lot of attention upon the Middle East, and also round the world which caused a lot of people dying. The relentless Arab Israel conflict is not directly religious as it dates back many centuries before neither Islam, nor is this conflict racial as both Jews and Arabs have derives from the same original race to history well known Semites. Apart from the holy shrines and places of worship, the Arabs and Israelis are fighting over living space.

    • Word count: 1430
  20. The Arab - Israeli Conflict

    They also felt it had importance with trade as they had been trading with the Middle East for many years. In 1900 countries began to realise that the collapse of the Turkish Empire was imminent. And European countries such as Britain, France, Germany and Italy where hoping to gain from this. This was because they wanted to have more influence in the Middle East and because it was becoming more evident that there were many oil fields within the Turkish Empire.

    • Word count: 1165
  21. Arab Israeli Conflict

    The Jews felt it was their land because God promised them it from ancient rights. When the Romans conquered the land that was when the Jews first left they settled in many parts of the world mainly Russia where they suffered the pogroms and in Germany they were suffered the holocaust. The Zionist set up to find a homeland they decided for it to be Palestine because they used to live there. So if they got all power over Palestine there would be a significant refugee problem for the Arabs.

    • Word count: 1414
  22. Conflicts over place

    Christians, Jews and Muslims see Jerusalem as important in defining their religion and its origin. For Jews, Jerusalem is the focus of their religious longing, the site of their ancient Temple, and their historical capital; for Christians, the city is the site of many of the events in the life of Jesus Christ; for Muslims, the city is their third holiest as the site from which Muhammad is said to have risen to heaven and the site of important mosques.

    • Word count: 1922
  23. How far is religion the main cause of the conflict in the Middle East since 1914?

    This made Jerusaluem a great religious centre for Arabs. In 1896 a Jew named Theodor Herzl published the Jewish State which says that the Jewish people needed a homeland. He wanted to call for immediate attention and start the Jews fight for their homeland. It states "Let us Jews be given sovereignty over part of the world big enough to satisfy the needs of a nation." Both Arabs and Israelis believe that Israel is their homeland. " O ye Arabs! You all dwell in one land, you speak in one language, so be also one nation and one land!"(An Arab writer 1914).

    • Word count: 1765
  24. "How accurate is Source A when applied to the activities of the Palestine Liberation Organisation under Yasser Arafat since the 1960s ?"

    In 1988 he agreed that Israel had the right to exist [before he had wanted to wipe the whole country off the map]; in 1993, after secret meetings, he signed a peace deal with Israel. This gained some home rule and freedom for some Palestinians, but then people inside his own party, the PLO, began criticising him for doing a deal with the enemy. One group split away and formed a "terrorist" group named Hamas" [From a school text book published in 1997.

    • Word count: 1369
  25. Why has it been so difficult to make peace in the Middle East?

    Unfortunately because of all this, it is hard to imagine that there will be a lasting peace between Jew and Arab in the foresee In 1948 the state of Israel was created out of the land Palestine. Since then there has been almost continuous conflict between Israel and its neighbour Arabs. The Middle East has hardly ever been out of news. In the time of Jesus first century ad Palestine was ruled by the Romans. In AD 70 again in AD 135 the Jews rebelled against their roman rulers.

    • Word count: 1114

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent is the current 'road map to peace' likely to be more successful in achieving peace in the Arab-Israeli conflict than any of the previous attempts in the last 30 years?

    "I do not think the 'Roadmap to Peace' will be successful. It will end up like the previous attempts at peace in the Middle East; Camp David, Madrid and Oslo, all of which failed. In my opinion there is no reason why the current Roadmap to Peace will be any different to these previous failures. The Roadmap has already failed its first target in May 2003, and does not seem to be heading towards any kind of peace. The leaders write the agreements but the people of Israel and Palestine have to live with them, many people on both sides still do not accept the right for the other to exist. Also there are still extreme terrorists groups who are never going to be happy with peace, and are going to jeopardise it every time. Violence in The Middle East has become a way of life for the people who live there, and its possible that that will never change."

  • To what extent do the Israelis and the Palestinians each have history on their Side?

    "In conclusion whilst either party in the Palestinian Israeli conflict could easily construct a case, using differentiating historical data, for having historical rights to today's Israel. However due to Israel's maintenance of territorial integrity and diplomatic pressure, historical precedent ensures that they have ultimately have all of history on their side and indeed the right to remain in Israel. James Robertson A.H.C 1001 1 Samuel 14 : 14 2 Samuel 16 : 11 3 Samuel 17 : 2 4 Anthony Bubalo Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade ; Australian Embassy Tel Aviv 14/10/02"

  • Assess who or what is to blame for the Palestinian refugee problem

    "This source could help us to reach a conclusion about who is responsible for the refugee problem because it gives us a huge insight into the situation. It includes real images and footage and interviews with eyewitnesses who know what's going on. Examples of Israelis blaming Israel add to the many other aspects making it an excellent source to look at for a Palestinian point of view. However, the interviewees were clearly carefully selected to support Pilger's biased opinion. It leaves us wondering what the motives of the eyewitnesses were and why no supportive images to Israel were shown. Even points given by people supporting Israel were made to look unjustified. There is too much left unseen for this source to lead us to a firm conclusion."

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