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AS and A Level: Middle east

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  1. Palestinian Middle East

    Romans renamed Israel Palestine, which caused their persecution they and were forced to wander from country to country. Then, years later three million Jews fled Eastern Europe in the thirty years before 1914 in order to escape this persecution known as Anti Semitism. In the 19th- Early 20th Century Palestine was ruled by the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), this was an Arab Muslim country and Palestinians wanted to be free from the Ottoman Empire. Turkey and Britain secured the help of the Arabs by promising to support them in their struggle for independence from Turkey.

    • Word count: 2402
  2. Arab-Israeli conflict

    Refugee camps also have a direct connection with violence. The problem that comes is when a terrorist group attacks a refugee camp. This then makes people in the camp angry and they want revenge. Therefore, the refugee camp becomes a breeding ground for new terrorists that want revenge. These people then cannot really be stopped as their mind is set on getting revenge. This escalates into a potential terrorist attack. The more people that feel like that, the more terrorist attacks and therefore the longer peace will take to come.

    • Word count: 2275
  3. How did the village of Dier Yassin come to be fought over in 1948, and why do sources A and B differ on who was to blame for the Arab flight from the village and other pars of Palestine at the time?

    Firstly the Arabs had less land even though they had two thirds more people. They also had no direct access to their main port of Jaffa. In addition their state was split into three separate parts, which, added to the fact that all of the most fertile land was under Israeli control made them extremely unhappy. Both sides felt they should control Jerusalem as a legal, moral and religious right. The Israelis had no direct access to Jerusalem, which meant they would have to travel through Arab territories to reach their holy city. These tensions resulted in both sides making war on each other before the UN partition could come into effect.

    • Word count: 2609
  4. Question 2 - What factors lead to the breakdown of the 1993 Israeli-Palestinian Peace Deal?

    Once again, the majority of both nations were pleased with the progress that the Peace Deal was making, however, fundamentalists still existed, and were angered by this move. This move was another step forward for both nations following the wars in which land was lost and security was breached, the 'Land for Peace' plan was working with an increasing effect. Following these two positive moves, the Peace Deal was to face a massive blow. On 4th November, 1995, just one month after the agreement of Oslo II, Israeli Prime Minister, Yitzhak Rabin, was assassinated by an Israeli law student with links to right-wing extremist groups.

    • Word count: 2262
  5. Can terrorism ever be a legitimate and effective means of pursuing political goals?

    However, experts are usually reluctant to class this as the same sort of terrorism conducted by ETA or Al-Qaeda. The vast bombing campaigns of Germany and the dropping of two nuclear weapons by the US in WWII can also be seen as examples of state terrorism. Countries like North Korea, until recently Iraq, and many South American military dictatorships have all been involved in terrorist acts, not to mention notoriously terrorist states like Libya and Syria. Nevertheless, as Bruce Hoffman states, 'such usages are generally termed 'terror' in order to distinguish that phenomenon from 'terrorism,' which is understood to be violence committed by non-state entities.'

    • Word count: 2922
  6. "The interrelated dynamics of conflict between the Israelis and the Palestinians make 'peace' between the two parties an illusion, perhaps even impossible in the near term." Discuss.

    We must remember when analysing the dynamics, the value of and equally problem created by opinion. Opinion adds to the complexity of the issues because someone is always going to feel cheated, bereaved, and unhappy with whatever happens in the Middle East. For example the opinion of Yasser Arafat may not be shared by Hamas. We must therefore take in to account that the complex dynamics mentioned here after are accounted for on the most basic levels of analysis, to try and summarise everyone's views, even the majority would be fruitless, impossible and indeed na�ve.

    • Word count: 2436
  7. Explain why the UNO decided to partition Palestine in 1948?

    In the years prior to their departure, the British had faced many problems with the country and its conflict. While Palestine was under British mandate, Britain had made promises to both Jews and Arabs which it could not maintain. One of these promises was to the Jews. They promised them a homeland in Palestine for them, under the Balfour declaration. This promise was because Britain wanted America to join the war, and thought that this declaration would gain support of the American Jews, and pressure the American government to join Britain in the war.

    • Word count: 2248
  8. Israel And Her Neighbours 1945 - c.1994.

    Also, the American Jew is also protesting against the Israeli government, and this shows us that even the Jewish people do no support these actions by their government. This is another way in which source A contradicts source B, because source B implies that all the Jewish people are against the Arabs returning, and in favour of the government's actions. Question b. The authors of sources C and D both state that they will never accept the existence of Israel and are in agreement that it should be destroyed completely.

    • Word count: 2523
  9. Arab Israeli Conflict

    Events which lead up to this where mainly the Israeli government accusing Arafat of failing to 'curb' terrorism and , supporters of Arafat (Hamas) began congregating around Arafat's compound as they feared that Israelis would kill him so they bombed the maxim restaurant in response to this. It being a recent event amongst many Palestinian suicide bombings, and it being a woman ( a successful lawyer of only 29) shows that the Palestinian People are willing to give up anything for there cause.

    • Word count: 2406
  10. How and why did Zionism change from a passive notion to an active ideology during the nineteenth century? What was the situation for the Jews in the mid 19th century preventing them from premoting mass migration from Palestine?

    For centuries the Jews of Europe were locked in their ghettoes and shtetls, insulated from outside influences by rampant anti-Semitism. However, with emancipation came the breaking down of barriers both imprisoning and protecting whole Jewish communities, and when given the opportunity, the Jews impetuously rushed to the conquest of pleasures of secular society from which they had been cut off for so many centuries. For the first time Jews began to gain prominence in many areas of wider cultural endeavor.

    • Word count: 2356
  11. "What are the main differences between the beliefs and attitudes of the Jews/Israelis and the Arabs/ Palestinians towards the land now called Israel with the Gaza Strip and the West Bank?

    Despite the Jews rebelling against their new overlords around 64AD they were defeated cruelly by 70AD. Their last stand was made at the ancient fortress built by King Herod - Masada. It shows that the Jewish believe they would rather kill themselves than be slaves to a new nation of rulers. All the main Jewish synagogues were destroyed, including the Temple of Solomon, reduced to rubble with only one wall (the Wailing Wall) remaining. This act of destroying all the evidence of Jewish occupation - and dispelling them to the far ends of the empire is now known as the Diaspora.

    • Word count: 2044
  12. Arab Israeli conflict.

    It explains the long-term factors effecting the Palestinians such as the backwardness to the economic conditions. Millions of people are still living in the refugee camps, some know no different because they have never lived anywhere else. Source B has been written in a factual way getting straight to the point about Ariel Sharon's campaigning visit to the temple mount on September 29 2000, causing an 'explosion of unrest'. The same as the first, this is also a reliable source, which talks about the violence.

    • Word count: 2068
  13. Factors Affecting the Situation In the Middle East.

    and Palestine's defence (Palestinians). Jewish Guerrilla groups helped to keep Palestinian fighters from attacking Jews to the extent of fear in Jews, they gave Jews confidence in fulfilling the Zionist aim, there fore increasing the amount of Jews migrating to Palestine. The Haganah and Irgun's capture of hundreds of Palestinian villages and the massacre of Deir Yassin where about two hundred Palestinian's were tortured and mutilated caused 100,000's of Palestinians to migrate to nearby countries fearing that they might also be massacred.

    • Word count: 2822
  14. Why might many Palestinian youths of your own age want to join terrorist organisations such as Hamas or Islamic Jihad, despite the danger of capture, retaliation and assassination?

    The Jewish have suffered a great deal of persecution throughout their era in history. Christian blamed them for the death of Christ, the worst sin ever. Most recently were the events of 'World War II'. The Jews suffered the most attacks and were used as puppets by Hitler for the outbreak and the consequences of the war. Many were executed in death camps such as 'Auschwitz' during one of the biggest mass genocide's in history, the 'Holocaust'. The Jews were also persecuted during Biblical times because the Egyptians enslaved them. God promised the Jews that he would lead them back to their promised homeland, Israel.

    • Word count: 2541
  15. Why might many Palestinian youths of your own age want to join terrorist organisations such as Hamas or Islamic Jihad, despite the danger of capture, retaliation and assassination?

    It was proclaimed that the Jews now had one long-term aspiration. This was to return to their homeland of Israel. They were adamant on returning to this homeland as can be seen in their final prayer which is used to conclude the annual Jewish festival, the 'Day of Atonement'. The prayer reads "Next year in Jerusalem". This proved their aspirations of a return to their homeland. However, the Jews were faced with a very demanding problem. When the final trace of Roman control in Israel collapsed in Byzantium during the 7th century, the Arabic race claimed control of the country and renamed it Palestine.

    • Word count: 2708
  16. The Arab Israeli - Conflict.

    The PLO stands for Palestine Liberation Organisation. They are an organisation that coordinated guerrilla activities. By 1968 Yasser Arafat became the chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO). Like most of the other leaders Yasser Arafat wanted to limit the raids and bombings to Israel territories and military targets. Their aim was strictly war. However some Palestinian extremists caused divisions inside the PLO by making attacks on other parts of the world an example of this is in 1972 Palestinians seized and killed 11 Israeli athletes at the Olympic games which were held in Germany.

    • Word count: 2842
  17. It is ironic how many wars have begun due to religion.

    During the First World War, Turkey and its empire was allied with Germany, apparently the cause of the war. When Germany lost the war, their allies had to pay reparations and give up colonies amongst the League of Nations (precursor of the UN), which consisted of Great Britain, France, Japan and Italy. The southern half of the Turkish Empire was mandated to France and Great Britain under the Sykes-Picot Agreement. Lebanon and Syria were mandated to France and Palestine (today's Jordan, Israel and the West Bank) to Great Britain. Following the trend of the 19th century, people were beginning to categorize themselves as nations.

    • Word count: 2239
  18. Can Terrorism Be Stopped?

    "Terrorist acts constitute an attack equally upon the individual separately considered; the society in which he lives; the state which he belongs; and the international community if which he forms part (Document 91)." 1 Terrorism in general, whether it is national, transnational or international, not only has generated a "global nightmare," but also threatens the language of violence becoming and everyday answer. So we reflect back and remind ourselves that human violence and aggression is not causing any good. The existence of terrorism is a threat to civilization but there are ways to discourage terrorism and limit or minimize the destructive consequences of terrorism.

    • Word count: 2898
  19. A history of Judaism in Morocco.

    In the seventh century, Muslim Arabs invaded North Africa. When they came to Morocco they were quite surprised to find strong Jewish-Berber tribes. One of these tribes was led by the legendary Queen Cahina who, at great odds, was able to ward off the encroaching Arabs for years. Finally defeated, she indignantly burned farms and crops so that they couldn't be captured and pillaged by the Arabs. Many Berber communities were able to keep their Jewish faith by retreating to small mountain and desert villages.

    • Word count: 2015
  20. Conflict between the Palestinians and Israelis has been the story of Middle Eastern relations since the creation of the Israeli State.

    Gandhi later attributed his creation of the tactic of non-violent non-cooperation to three men. Tolstoy, Thoreau and Jesus Christ were the examples that Gandhi claimed to have drawn the idea from (Fischer 74). When he returned to India he set out to use this tactic to bring about the independence of India. He named his movement "Satygraha" meaning peaceful resistance (Fishcer 122). Going throughout the country Gandhi preached the ideal of non-violent non-cooperation. He told his people to stop cooperating with the British lords and landowners, but to not resort to armed resistance.

    • Word count: 2003
  21. Assess the relationship between the US and Iraq from 1970 to the present day.

    Perhaps no coincidence that there are reports of twenty-four US companies supplying Iraq with various weapons of mass destruction since 1975. The next large-scale event occurred after Saddam Hussein's appointment as head of state in 1979. In his intentions to war with all his enemies, passions escalated between Iraq and Iran. The Iran-Iraq war broke out in 1980 and there are many reports that the US helped fund Iraq with economic assistance, political support, arms, satellite intelligence and the assistance of a US naval battle group.

    • Word count: 2530
  22. The Arab-Israeli Conflict.

    This was because Jews mainly controlled the Israeli government the Palestinians feared they would be outnumbered and so fled. The government encouraged the Jews to move to Israel and so some Palestinians left in fear of the government striking against them. The flight of the Palestinians also made the neighbouring Arab governments unhappy. They feared that they would have to support them. Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan all tried to persuade people not to become refugees. The Lebanese government blocked their borders during the middle of May 1948. A bigger problem lay in the hands of the Israeli government when they tried to return.

    • Word count: 2456
  23. Why is there still so much fear, suspicion and hatred between the Israelis and the Palestinians?

    (Conflict in Palestine Textbook) 700,000 Palestinians moved to refugee camps; 70,000 in Jordan, 75,000 in Syria, 280,000 in The West Bank, 190,000 in The Gaza Strip and 100,000 in Lebanon. Many of these refugee camps still exist today. The Palestinians were determined to return home to what was now Israel, but the Israelis were determined to keep the land that they had gained as a result of the war. This caused a conflict between the two groups, which still hasn't been solved, and has caused the Israelis and the Palestinians to be mistrustful and suspicious towards each other.

    • Word count: 2643
  24. In what ways was Soloman a successful king?

    Due to the fact that Solomon was born to kingship, it can be debated whether he was actually chosen by God to be the king. He ruthlessly killed his brother Adonijah, even thought he was the rightful heir, and so it can be argued that he manipulated the circumstances to make himself king instead of being the intention of God. Solomon's enemies at the time were very weak and because he was a poor military leader, he set up a series of preventative measures as a disincentive for people to even attempt to attack.

    • Word count: 2795
  25. British policy towards Palestine in the creation of Israel, one must carefully analyze British policy and also analyze, the other side of the equation, Zionism and the stand alone role they played in the creation of a Jewish state.

    This stated that "Great Britain is prepared to recognize and support the Arab independence", in the territory between the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf, with the exception of the area North of Damascus and the Persian Gulf itself, in exchange for an Arab revolt which would weaken the Central Powers. In the correspondence between Hussein and Sir Henry McMahon there was no delineation of borders or states; it was more of a "general" guarantee that would come back and cause the beginning of problems and issues in the territory of Palestine.

    • Word count: 2682

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent is the current 'road map to peace' likely to be more successful in achieving peace in the Arab-Israeli conflict than any of the previous attempts in the last 30 years?

    "I do not think the 'Roadmap to Peace' will be successful. It will end up like the previous attempts at peace in the Middle East; Camp David, Madrid and Oslo, all of which failed. In my opinion there is no reason why the current Roadmap to Peace will be any different to these previous failures. The Roadmap has already failed its first target in May 2003, and does not seem to be heading towards any kind of peace. The leaders write the agreements but the people of Israel and Palestine have to live with them, many people on both sides still do not accept the right for the other to exist. Also there are still extreme terrorists groups who are never going to be happy with peace, and are going to jeopardise it every time. Violence in The Middle East has become a way of life for the people who live there, and its possible that that will never change."

  • To what extent do the Israelis and the Palestinians each have history on their Side?

    "In conclusion whilst either party in the Palestinian Israeli conflict could easily construct a case, using differentiating historical data, for having historical rights to today's Israel. However due to Israel's maintenance of territorial integrity and diplomatic pressure, historical precedent ensures that they have ultimately have all of history on their side and indeed the right to remain in Israel. James Robertson A.H.C 1001 1 Samuel 14 : 14 2 Samuel 16 : 11 3 Samuel 17 : 2 4 Anthony Bubalo Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade ; Australian Embassy Tel Aviv 14/10/02"

  • Assess who or what is to blame for the Palestinian refugee problem

    "This source could help us to reach a conclusion about who is responsible for the refugee problem because it gives us a huge insight into the situation. It includes real images and footage and interviews with eyewitnesses who know what's going on. Examples of Israelis blaming Israel add to the many other aspects making it an excellent source to look at for a Palestinian point of view. However, the interviewees were clearly carefully selected to support Pilger's biased opinion. It leaves us wondering what the motives of the eyewitnesses were and why no supportive images to Israel were shown. Even points given by people supporting Israel were made to look unjustified. There is too much left unseen for this source to lead us to a firm conclusion."

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