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AS and A Level: Middle east

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  1. Are suicide bombers psychological disturbed or brainwashed by external forces After the attacks on New York and the pentagon on September 11th

    This can be seen by the motivations of Mohammed Sique Khan one of the London bombers. He said on a supposed Al Qaeda video that he was motivated by " the gassing imprisonment and torture of his people" this shows that the terrorists are not psychologically disturbed but have a motive to their actions and a firm belief in killing themselves for the cause. It can also be seen by the fact September 11th was provoked by the American involvement in Islamic countries such as Saudi Arabia and their support of Israel.

    • Word count: 1050
  2. Why was the State of Israel Declared in 1948?

    On the 29th of November 1947 the United Nations passed a resolution of the calling of Jews around the world to re-establish their own state. But the British were cheating both the Jews and the Arabs because they said that were going to help the Jews to re-establish their homeland and also said to the Arabs (Palestinians) that they were going to help them defeat the Jews and take them out of Palestine. But when the British could not handle it in Palestine to stop the two sides from fighting they said that they where going to leave Palestine and hand over the problems to the United Nations.

    • Word count: 787
  3. Why are attempts to find a peace settlement proving so difficult? The Palestinians and the Jews have been fighting over the land of Palestine

    I think the peace agreement was not fully carried out because the hatred and mistrust between the two sides and also because of the ongoing disagreements between them. The trouble began at around 1880 because the Jews wished to settle in Palestine, these Jews were called Zionists. After WWI Britain was given a mandate (where a country controls another country until they are deemed fit to rule themselves) of Palestine, the Palestinian saw this as a betrayal because during the war Britain had said they would be 'prepared to recognise and support the independence of the Arabs' so the Arabs rebelled against their Turkish rulers and found themselves ruled by Britain.

    • Word count: 856
  4. It seemed like an ordinary night. The soft whine of the wind echoed throughout the vast hall. The lifeless portraits, on the walls, stared gloomily at

    Trevor held the radio up to his mouth and whispered "No, you must have left it somewhere else." He continued to make his way across the room, "Okay, thanks for looking anyway," came the reply. Trevor placed the chunky radio into his back pocket and headed toward a door labelled "Security." Suddenly there was a great "BOOM," from outside. Trevor jumped out of his skin. His heart was pounding like a drum. He leant against the wall and took a deep breath. "Calm down it's only a bit of thunder," he muttered to himself "get you together." He took another deep breath and then exited through the nearby door.

    • Word count: 936
  5. Israel-Palestine Conflict

    The First World War became the turning point in the history of the Middle East for Jews and Arabs. It brought Britain onto the stage. In July 1915 the promise was made between Sherif Hussein and Sir Henry McMahon and was called the McMahon Promise. Arabs were promised independence, which they desired so much. But two years later the Balfour Declaration was established on 2nd November 1917, as a "declaration of sympathy". Britain needed help with the war to win. Without consulting the Palestinians, the British government offered to support the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine while "it being understood that nothing shall be done that may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing no-Jewish communities in Palestine" and preserving the rights of Europe's Jews in their countries of origin (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balfour_Declaration_1917 ).

    • Word count: 1297
  6. History Coursework: The Arab-Israeli Conflict

    By 1914 these Jews decided that it would have to be in Palestine. This land was known to the Jews as the "Promised Land", so called because the Jews believed God promised it to them. The Jews (or Israelites) had lived there nearly 2500 years before and where several thousands still remained. However it was not all Jews who wanted to have their homeland, the majority of Jews, who lived in Western Europe and the United States were happy where they lived, it was only a small number, mainly from Russia who desired this "Promised Land".

    • Word count: 3899
  7. Book Review: Seeds of Terror

    Al-Qaeda has encouraged local groups to carve out autonomous Islamic areas that can be linked together worldwide. Much like fascism and communism before, their goal is political power and world dominion, but mainly to replace democracy with Islamic Shariah law. Indonesia and its neighboring countries have become fertile ground for the terrorist network al Qaeda. In fact, nations like Indonesia, which at 200 million has the world's largest Muslim population. The terror in Bali could have been prevented exclaims Ressa, as she tells her readers that Indonesian police had had the names of every single one of the Bali plotters well in advance.

    • Word count: 1183
  8. Burundi Refugees

    The largest recorded movement in recent history followed tribal-based genocide in Rwanda, Africa. Over 1 million refugees had escaped to neighbouring countries. Here's an example of refugees in Burundi: Burundi's war began in late 1993, triggered by the assassination, in October of that year, of the country's first democratically elected president, Melchoir Ndadaye, a Hutu (name of the tribe he belonged to). Fighting between mainly Hutu rebels and the military, which was dominated by Tutsis, caused many deaths and rendered large swaths of the country unsafe. Hundreds of thousands of people fled to neighbouring countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Tanzania).

    • Word count: 623
  9. The Jewish State

    They are debarred from filling even moderately high positions, either in the army, or in any public or private capacity. And attempts are made to thrust them out of business also: "Don't buy from Jews!" (D'Avigdor,1988). These events are the underlying causes of publication of the Jewish State. Theodor Herzl is considered to be the father of what is known to be Zion or the Zionist Movement. He was born in 1860 in Budapest and was raised as a Jewish - German in Germany.

    • Word count: 1321
  10. History-Arab/Israeli conflict section B

    In the letter was a promise to Lord Rothschild from Lord Arthur James Balfour, it stated that the government was in favour of "the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object," it also said in " it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."

    • Word count: 787
  11. GCSE Coursework: The Holocaust

    Jews were also forced to sell their business to Aryans for very low prices. The Nazis 'encouraged' the Jews to leave Germany by setting up a government office for Jewish emigration. They were evicted from their homes and made to live in homes designed especially for Jewish occupation. They were forbidden to do a few things aswell, these were things like forbidding them from buying cakes and chocolate, disallowing them from running shops or businesses, forbidding them from buying radios and even stopping them from owning a dog. A lot of these things were designed to either: A.

    • Word count: 1531
  12. How did the village of Dier Yassin come to be fought over in 1948, and why do sources A and B differ on who was to blame for the Arab flight from the village and other pars of Palestine at the time?

    Firstly the Arabs had less land even though they had two thirds more people. They also had no direct access to their main port of Jaffa. In addition their state was split into three separate parts, which, added to the fact that all of the most fertile land was under Israeli control made them extremely unhappy. Both sides felt they should control Jerusalem as a legal, moral and religious right. The Israelis had no direct access to Jerusalem, which meant they would have to travel through Arab territories to reach their holy city. These tensions resulted in both sides making war on each other before the UN partition could come into effect.

    • Word count: 2609
  13. Question 1 - Jews and Palestinian beliefs for right to land

    And so the conflict of who had the right to land began. This is just the foundation to the argument of who has the right to the land, during my coursework I am going to investigate and consider some of each side's belief about their right to land. The Jews believe that they have the right to land because 'they were there first'; they lived there for around 1000 years, until they were forced out by the Romans. Over the next 1900 years, Jews settled around Europe and America. However, in Europe they were given few rights; this was due to 'Anti-Semitism'.

    • Word count: 1080
  14. Question 2 - What factors lead to the breakdown of the 1993 Israeli-Palestinian Peace Deal?

    Once again, the majority of both nations were pleased with the progress that the Peace Deal was making, however, fundamentalists still existed, and were angered by this move. This move was another step forward for both nations following the wars in which land was lost and security was breached, the 'Land for Peace' plan was working with an increasing effect. Following these two positive moves, the Peace Deal was to face a massive blow. On 4th November, 1995, just one month after the agreement of Oslo II, Israeli Prime Minister, Yitzhak Rabin, was assassinated by an Israeli law student with links to right-wing extremist groups.

    • Word count: 2262
  15. To what extent is the current 'road map to peace' likely to be more successful in achieving peace in the Arab-Israeli conflict than any of the previous attempts in the last 30 years?

    UN troops were brought in, and things seemed to be heading the right way towards peace. However the first major peace negotiations were in 1977 when the President Carter of the USA offered to act as mediator for President Sadat of Egypt and President Begin of Israel, the leaders of the two sides at that time. The negotiations took place at Carter's holiday home Camp David. Sadat and Begin agreed to negotiate a peace treaty and establish democratic relations. Egypt would recognise Israel's right to exist and Israel would gradually retreat from the Sinai Peninsula.

    • Word count: 1444
  16. Why has it been so difficult to bring peace in the Middle East?

    The horror of innocent people dying in September 11, 2001, organised by Bin Laden has got a lot of attention upon the Middle East, and also round the world which caused a lot of people dying. The relentless Arab Israel conflict is not directly religious as it dates back many centuries before neither Islam, nor is this conflict racial as both Jews and Arabs have derives from the same original race to history well known Semites. Apart from the holy shrines and places of worship, the Arabs and Israelis are fighting over living space.

    • Word count: 1430
  17. A line in the Sand

    There are estimates that more that 20 million people were left homeless after the construction of this line. Who said lines were boring, not me! However, it runs deeper than that. Not only did people have to move, more than one million people were butchered on the construction of this line. The positioning of this line has been the cause of three wars: three bloody brutal wars. Now can I ask you, who in the right mind would make such a line as this? They would have to be mighty inhuman to draw a line that would kill a million people.

    • Word count: 736
  18. Is Religion Necessary is Today's society?

    If religion was not involved, many of the millions of Jews killed might still be living today. Another example of a war is the dispute between Palestine and Israel that has been going on for thousands of years is over 'Holy Land', Judea. It all started when Judea was conquered by the Romans and renamed Palestine. Palestine was then later conquered by the Arabs who have been living there for thousands of years. Following the Balfour Declaration in 1917, Palestine was granted to Britain as a League of Nations mandate to build a national home for the Jewish people.

    • Word count: 707
  19. The Arab - Israeli Conflict

    They also felt it had importance with trade as they had been trading with the Middle East for many years. In 1900 countries began to realise that the collapse of the Turkish Empire was imminent. And European countries such as Britain, France, Germany and Italy where hoping to gain from this. This was because they wanted to have more influence in the Middle East and because it was becoming more evident that there were many oil fields within the Turkish Empire.

    • Word count: 1165
  20. Arab Israeli Conflict

    The Jews felt it was their land because God promised them it from ancient rights. When the Romans conquered the land that was when the Jews first left they settled in many parts of the world mainly Russia where they suffered the pogroms and in Germany they were suffered the holocaust. The Zionist set up to find a homeland they decided for it to be Palestine because they used to live there. So if they got all power over Palestine there would be a significant refugee problem for the Arabs.

    • Word count: 1414
  21. Can terrorism ever be a legitimate and effective means of pursuing political goals?

    However, experts are usually reluctant to class this as the same sort of terrorism conducted by ETA or Al-Qaeda. The vast bombing campaigns of Germany and the dropping of two nuclear weapons by the US in WWII can also be seen as examples of state terrorism. Countries like North Korea, until recently Iraq, and many South American military dictatorships have all been involved in terrorist acts, not to mention notoriously terrorist states like Libya and Syria. Nevertheless, as Bruce Hoffman states, 'such usages are generally termed 'terror' in order to distinguish that phenomenon from 'terrorism,' which is understood to be violence committed by non-state entities.'

    • Word count: 2922
  22. Why was the State of Israel successfully established in 1948?

    In return for Jewish support during the war, the British made the Balfour Declaration which formally acknowledged the ancient link between the Jewish people and the land of Palestine (4). Following World War One, The League of Nations Council and the American Congress gave similar public signs of support; backing the eventual "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people" (5) These public declarations dramatically changed the status of the Zionist cause, giving their ambitions for Palestine a strong, legal, grounding.

    • Word count: 3454
  23. "The interrelated dynamics of conflict between the Israelis and the Palestinians make 'peace' between the two parties an illusion, perhaps even impossible in the near term." Discuss.

    We must remember when analysing the dynamics, the value of and equally problem created by opinion. Opinion adds to the complexity of the issues because someone is always going to feel cheated, bereaved, and unhappy with whatever happens in the Middle East. For example the opinion of Yasser Arafat may not be shared by Hamas. We must therefore take in to account that the complex dynamics mentioned here after are accounted for on the most basic levels of analysis, to try and summarise everyone's views, even the majority would be fruitless, impossible and indeed na�ve.

    • Word count: 2436
  24. Israel's Security Barrier

    This will make a peaceful solution to the conflict even more difficult. The Planned Route of the Barrier: While Yitzhak Rabin won his premiership with the slogan "Us Here, Them There" Ehud Barak endorsed the idea of separation through the slogan "good fences make good neighbors", states Peter Lagerquist who works as a writer and researcher in Palestine and Israel.1 However this is hardly possible if the land is built on "borrowed" land. The idea of separation is not a new one and the current Premier of Israel, Sharon has now turned an idea into reality with the beginning of the construction of a fence.

    • Word count: 3005
  25. Conflicts over place

    Christians, Jews and Muslims see Jerusalem as important in defining their religion and its origin. For Jews, Jerusalem is the focus of their religious longing, the site of their ancient Temple, and their historical capital; for Christians, the city is the site of many of the events in the life of Jesus Christ; for Muslims, the city is their third holiest as the site from which Muhammad is said to have risen to heaven and the site of important mosques.

    • Word count: 1922

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