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AS and A Level: Middle east

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  1. How far is religion the main cause of the conflict in the Middle East since 1914?

    This made Jerusaluem a great religious centre for Arabs. In 1896 a Jew named Theodor Herzl published the Jewish State which says that the Jewish people needed a homeland. He wanted to call for immediate attention and start the Jews fight for their homeland. It states "Let us Jews be given sovereignty over part of the world big enough to satisfy the needs of a nation." Both Arabs and Israelis believe that Israel is their homeland. " O ye Arabs! You all dwell in one land, you speak in one language, so be also one nation and one land!"(An Arab writer 1914).

    • Word count: 1765
  2. "How accurate is Source A when applied to the activities of the Palestine Liberation Organisation under Yasser Arafat since the 1960s ?"

    In 1988 he agreed that Israel had the right to exist [before he had wanted to wipe the whole country off the map]; in 1993, after secret meetings, he signed a peace deal with Israel. This gained some home rule and freedom for some Palestinians, but then people inside his own party, the PLO, began criticising him for doing a deal with the enemy. One group split away and formed a "terrorist" group named Hamas" [From a school text book published in 1997.

    • Word count: 1369
  3. Choose 3 events which are particularly important in the history of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Describe your chosen events and explain how they have shaped the views of todays a) Israeli Jews and b) Palestinian Arabs.

    This resulted in hatred of the British rule especially among extremist Jewish terrorist groups like the Irgun when in July 1946 they entered the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, which were the British military headquarters in Palestine, and set off an explosion killing 88 people. Despite this act of terrorism against the British and many others similar there was still worldwide sympathy for the Jewish immigrants. This pro-Jewish sympathy is still present today and is constantly being reinforced by events such as Holocaust Day, recent films such as "Schindler's List" and the teaching of the Holocaust in the school curriculum.

    • Word count: 893
  4. Why has it been so difficult to make peace in the Middle East?

    Unfortunately because of all this, it is hard to imagine that there will be a lasting peace between Jew and Arab in the foresee In 1948 the state of Israel was created out of the land Palestine. Since then there has been almost continuous conflict between Israel and its neighbour Arabs. The Middle East has hardly ever been out of news. In the time of Jesus first century ad Palestine was ruled by the Romans. In AD 70 again in AD 135 the Jews rebelled against their roman rulers.

    • Word count: 1114
  5. Why has it been so difficult to bring peace in the Middle East?

    Jews believe that god promised the land to them, and Jerusalem, the capital of Israel, is their holy city. Apart from the holy shrines and places to worship, the Arabs and Israelis were fighting over dry and dusty land lying between Europe, Asia and Africa, with little fresh water, few raw materials and no real significance except for claims upon that land by different groups who have claims going back for many centuries. The horror of innocent people dying in September 11, 2001, organised by Bin Laden has got a lot of attention upon the Middle East, and also round the world which caused a lot of people dying.

    • Word count: 1568
  6. Palestinian refugee problem - source related study

    By understanding the author's reasons, the sources can be useful to see what different points of view are. Source A is a Palestinian view of the Arab exodus from Palestine in 1948. It is an extract from a pamphlet written by the Palestinian Liberation Organisation in 1984. The source seems to be blaming the Israeli's for attacking the 'peaceful' village. The language used makes the attack look motiveless and evil. They use words such as 'murdered' and 'in cold blood'.

    • Word count: 3901
  7. Have Powers From Outside the Middle East Helped or Hindered in the Search for a Resolution to the Arab-Israeli Conflict since 1948?

    The US decided to back Israel, due to the massive Jewish lobby in America; again showing their own self-interests, rather than trying to find an ideal solution. Once communism collapsed, and so the Russian influence in the Middle Easr faded, the US no longer had to support Israel to maintain its influence; in doing so the Arabs began a surge of attacks against the Israelis, pushing them further from the peace talks. 1948 saw some drastic changes in the Middle East, the UN tried to help, by drawing up the partition plan, this helped in dividing areas of disputed land, however seemed to favour the Jewish settlements, as they received the majority of land, even though they were a minority.

    • Word count: 1734
  8. Explain why the UNO decided to partition Palestine in 1948?

    In the years prior to their departure, the British had faced many problems with the country and its conflict. While Palestine was under British mandate, Britain had made promises to both Jews and Arabs which it could not maintain. One of these promises was to the Jews. They promised them a homeland in Palestine for them, under the Balfour declaration. This promise was because Britain wanted America to join the war, and thought that this declaration would gain support of the American Jews, and pressure the American government to join Britain in the war.

    • Word count: 2248
  9. Israel And Her Neighbours 1945 - c.1994.

    Also, the American Jew is also protesting against the Israeli government, and this shows us that even the Jewish people do no support these actions by their government. This is another way in which source A contradicts source B, because source B implies that all the Jewish people are against the Arabs returning, and in favour of the government's actions. Question b. The authors of sources C and D both state that they will never accept the existence of Israel and are in agreement that it should be destroyed completely.

    • Word count: 2523
  10. Arab Israeli Conflict

    Events which lead up to this where mainly the Israeli government accusing Arafat of failing to 'curb' terrorism and , supporters of Arafat (Hamas) began congregating around Arafat's compound as they feared that Israelis would kill him so they bombed the maxim restaurant in response to this. It being a recent event amongst many Palestinian suicide bombings, and it being a woman ( a successful lawyer of only 29) shows that the Palestinian People are willing to give up anything for there cause.

    • Word count: 2406
  11. How and why did Zionism change from a passive notion to an active ideology during the nineteenth century? What was the situation for the Jews in the mid 19th century preventing them from premoting mass migration from Palestine?

    For centuries the Jews of Europe were locked in their ghettoes and shtetls, insulated from outside influences by rampant anti-Semitism. However, with emancipation came the breaking down of barriers both imprisoning and protecting whole Jewish communities, and when given the opportunity, the Jews impetuously rushed to the conquest of pleasures of secular society from which they had been cut off for so many centuries. For the first time Jews began to gain prominence in many areas of wider cultural endeavor.

    • Word count: 2356
  12. Assess the effectiveness of the Arab and Israeli peace initiatives from the 1970s to the 1990s.

    ISSUES SURROUNDING THE WEST BANK AND GAZA, 1967-1977 (following 1967 war) Israeli Perspective - Under Jordanian control (1948-1967) the Palestinians had been kept politically and socially divided in an effort to limit the growth of Palestinian nationalism. - After 1967 the West Bank economy and labour force were incorporated into the Israeli economy. Palestinian Perspective - Argue Israel continued a policy aimed at preventing growth of a collective Palestinian identity. - Assert that Israel soon set out on the path of deliberately establishing Jewish military settlements in the Gaza Strip, Jordan Valley and the Golan Heights - Initially the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza benefited economically but becoming part of the Israeli economy --> high level

    • Word count: 6183
  13. Middle east conflict - There have been several attempts to bring peace to this area but there is still no end to the fighting. What are the main obstacles to peace and how have these stopped previous attempts from working (including the most recent)?

    Both sides believe in the idea of owning 100% of Palestine to create into their ideal homeland. At the moment due to gains in the Six Day War in 1967, the Israelis have full control of all the land - including the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, encouraging more terrorism from the Arab nationals stopping a potential peace settlement to work. The Jews recently have begun settlement building in the West Bank, encouraged by Ariel Sharon, (he was the housing minister in the 1970's but now the Prime Minister). Today around 400,000 Israelis live illegally on the Palestinian lands, despite Resolution 242 passed 30 years ago making the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza strip illegal.

    • Word count: 3531
  14. "What are the main differences between the beliefs and attitudes of the Jews/Israelis and the Arabs/ Palestinians towards the land now called Israel with the Gaza Strip and the West Bank?

    Despite the Jews rebelling against their new overlords around 64AD they were defeated cruelly by 70AD. Their last stand was made at the ancient fortress built by King Herod - Masada. It shows that the Jewish believe they would rather kill themselves than be slaves to a new nation of rulers. All the main Jewish synagogues were destroyed, including the Temple of Solomon, reduced to rubble with only one wall (the Wailing Wall) remaining. This act of destroying all the evidence of Jewish occupation - and dispelling them to the far ends of the empire is now known as the Diaspora.

    • Word count: 2044
  15. " One person's freedom fighter is another person's terrorist" is a common statement used to describe the different perspectives about terrorism or conflict around the world.

    Al-Qaeda is an international terrorist network led by Osama bin Laden. Thousands of volunteers from around the Middle East came to Afghanistan as warriors fighting to defend fellow Muslims beliefs and culture. It seeks to free the Muslim countries from the influence of the West and replace their governments with fundamentalist Islamic culture. After al-Qaeda's September 11, 2001, attacks on America, the United States launched a war in Afghanistan to destroy al-Qaeda's bases there and overthrow the Taliban who provide a safe haven for Osama and his fellow fighters.

    • Word count: 865
  16. Arab Israeli conflict.

    It explains the long-term factors effecting the Palestinians such as the backwardness to the economic conditions. Millions of people are still living in the refugee camps, some know no different because they have never lived anywhere else. Source B has been written in a factual way getting straight to the point about Ariel Sharon's campaigning visit to the temple mount on September 29 2000, causing an 'explosion of unrest'. The same as the first, this is also a reliable source, which talks about the violence.

    • Word count: 2068
  17. Arab and Israeli conflict - source related study.

    Another key aspect is that sources A and B say that the PLO is regaining its land for the right purpose and should have the privilege to debated about it. Whereas sources C and D disagree with this and comment "PLO a murderous group of terrorist with a sophisticated army." This firstly tells us that the PLO is a murderous group organization. Also imply the fact that the people who wrote the sources C and D are Zionist telling us that the Jews should have a homeland and later an independent state.

    • Word count: 3223
  18. Western offensive in the Mediterranean: The Crusades.

    Jerusalem is the objective of the crusades. To capture Jerusalem and its holy saints, namely the Holy Sepulchre, Christ's tomb. From 1096 to 1291 thousands of christians from the latin west headed to Palestine convinced that their salvation would come in liberating Christ's place of rest. The first crusade in 1096 came in two waves, the first made up of common people, the peasantry, which was wiped out by tthe Turks; and, the second, made up of lords. They managed to take Jerusalem on the 15th of July 1099 by inflicting a tremendous massacre upon the muslim population.

    • Word count: 548
  19. 'Read and synthesise information from two extended documents about a complex subject' - Subject: Israel's 'Security' Wall.

    As a result of this war the Israelis gained a lot more land, extending their borders. This extra land, including the city of Jerusalem, is not referred to as the occupied territories. Since that time there have been two Palestinian uprisings protesting the Israeli occupation of their land. The latest 'intifada' began in September 2000 and since that time there has been an escalation in a cycle of terror on both sides. The building of the wall is in effect the latest development in this cycle.

    • Word count: 902
  20. What has been the effect of conflict between Israel and Palestine on human rights in there countries?

    The conflict between these two countries just grew even stronger by the time. On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. There are 30 human rights in the world. Israel and Palestine are violating some of these rights because of their conflict. In the UN declaration of human rights, in article #3, it says that "everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of person." I believe that this right is being violated to an extreme extent in both of these countries.

    • Word count: 1049
  21. To What Extent was the Zionist Movement the Main Factor in the Foundation of the State of Israel?

    However, the Zionist movement began long before Herzl made it a public issue with his 1st Zionist Congress in Basle in August 1897. Zionism is simply "the ideology of Jewish nationalism"4, a movement which aimed to create a secured home for the Jewish people in the area known as Palestine, regarded as the Biblical home of the Jews. According to Heater & Berridge, this movement emerged out of the "combination of intellectual reaction against the failure of assimilationist liberalism in Western Europe ...

    • Word count: 1409
  22. What are the main differences between the views of the Israeli's and the Palestinians?

    Moses, the religious leader of Judaism (as is Jesus for Christianity) took the Jews out of destruction and led them to the area around Jerusalem, which became the royal city. Jerusalem is therefore the holy land for Jews. This is also based upon the promise made to Abraham's descendents. A small number of Jews started to migrate to Palestine, buying land and building homes, slowly taking over what the Arabs believed to be 'their' land. Then in the 1930's the holocaust took place, an international crisis experienced mainly by the Jews, who were killed fiercely by the Nazi's led by Adolph Hitler.

    • Word count: 1118
  23. Jewish Diaspora.

    However, we can't ignore the fact that for some undeniable reason, they have suffered tremendously throughout time. Regardless of the reason, we should all realize that the Jewish people are unique. They have survived and lived through many horrible situations. In my opinion, only God could have helped them accomplish this. The Jewish people have had to fight back many times. There seemed to be no escape or answer to their suffering. When would the pain stop? Everywhere the Jews went, they seemed to be plagued with a curse. Eventually, they were forced to spread out for their own safety.

    • Word count: 1440
  24. Arab Isralie conflict.

    The Intifade began in 1987 and was an attempt to disrupt the heavy-handed policing tactics of Israelis. The main participating groups were the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), Hamas and Islamic Jihad. The Intifade claimed more than 1400 Palestinian and 230 Jewish lives and increased the pressure for a political settlement. When the Intifade demonstrates there might be accidental deaths of civilians caught in cross-fire. Children who are also in the Intifade will be shot by the Israeli troops. July 24th, 2002 A series of suicide bombings in mid- June led Israeli to announce "a change in the way [it] responds to murderous acts of terror".

    • Word count: 1437
  25. Factors Affecting the Situation In the Middle East.

    and Palestine's defence (Palestinians). Jewish Guerrilla groups helped to keep Palestinian fighters from attacking Jews to the extent of fear in Jews, they gave Jews confidence in fulfilling the Zionist aim, there fore increasing the amount of Jews migrating to Palestine. The Haganah and Irgun's capture of hundreds of Palestinian villages and the massacre of Deir Yassin where about two hundred Palestinian's were tortured and mutilated caused 100,000's of Palestinians to migrate to nearby countries fearing that they might also be massacred.

    • Word count: 2822

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