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AS and A Level: Middle east

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  1. Poverty and Inequality causes terrorism - Discuss.

    The idea of the World Bank is to help poor countries and eradicate poverty entirely, they say they only invest money into large schemes E.G dams or power plants that will help the country to get out of poverty but it can be just as easily argued that the World Bank only invests money into such schemed because they know they will get there money back. As a citizen of such countries understanding the eastern Banks and how they are basically making sure that they will never become more powerful, this will cause a deep hate for eastern world.

    • Word count: 829
  2. How far do the policies of the PLO between the founding movement in 1964, and the signing of the Israeli PLO Accord in 1993?

    Consequently the Israeli armed forces flew 2000 miles to Entebbe and killed the Palestinians, therefore freeing the hostages. Hijackings became less common, but the use of violence against Israeli targets still continued. However in 1988 Arafat chose peace which was the total opposite to that stated in the National Charter, and that the signing of the PLO Accord in 1993 enforced this change of view. '...It is time to put an end to decades of confrontation and conflict,' Arafat rejected the use of terrorism publicly and excepted the existence of Israel.

    • Word count: 874
  3. Why might many Palestinian youths of your own age want to join terrorist organisations such as Hamas or Islamic Jihad, despite the danger of capture, retaliation and assassination?

    The Jewish have suffered a great deal of persecution throughout their era in history. Christian blamed them for the death of Christ, the worst sin ever. Most recently were the events of 'World War II'. The Jews suffered the most attacks and were used as puppets by Hitler for the outbreak and the consequences of the war. Many were executed in death camps such as 'Auschwitz' during one of the biggest mass genocide's in history, the 'Holocaust'. The Jews were also persecuted during Biblical times because the Egyptians enslaved them. God promised the Jews that he would lead them back to their promised homeland, Israel.

    • Word count: 2541
  4. Why might many Palestinian youths of your own age want to join terrorist organisations such as Hamas or Islamic Jihad, despite the danger of capture, retaliation and assassination?

    It was proclaimed that the Jews now had one long-term aspiration. This was to return to their homeland of Israel. They were adamant on returning to this homeland as can be seen in their final prayer which is used to conclude the annual Jewish festival, the 'Day of Atonement'. The prayer reads "Next year in Jerusalem". This proved their aspirations of a return to their homeland. However, the Jews were faced with a very demanding problem. When the final trace of Roman control in Israel collapsed in Byzantium during the 7th century, the Arabic race claimed control of the country and renamed it Palestine.

    • Word count: 2708
  5. The Arab Israeli - Conflict.

    The PLO stands for Palestine Liberation Organisation. They are an organisation that coordinated guerrilla activities. By 1968 Yasser Arafat became the chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO). Like most of the other leaders Yasser Arafat wanted to limit the raids and bombings to Israel territories and military targets. Their aim was strictly war. However some Palestinian extremists caused divisions inside the PLO by making attacks on other parts of the world an example of this is in 1972 Palestinians seized and killed 11 Israeli athletes at the Olympic games which were held in Germany.

    • Word count: 2842
  6. The Significance of Canada's Contribution to the Resolution of the Suez Crisis.

    The predominantly Anglo-French Suez Canal was seized on July 26, 1956 by Egyptian president Nasser. The Suez Canal was first built by the French and then acquired by the British, and finally taken back by Egypt. This sudden move by Nasser was because he believed he was missing out on an opportunity to create revenue.1 President Nasser promised compensation to the British and French companies who had invested in the canal, however, by this time Britain, France and Israel had joined together, and begun plotting to take back the canal and overthrow Nasser.

    • Word count: 1030
  7. The land of Israel, home of the holy land Jerusalem, has been around for 35 centuries.

    (Frenkel 12) Living in a State as culturally diverse as Israel, it is unforeseeable that problems and conflicts will arise. Thousands of years of history, the ingathering of the Jews from over 70 countries, a society of multi-ethnic communities living side by side, and an unending flow of international input via satellite and cable have contributed to the development of an Israeli culture which reflects worldwide elements while striving for an identity of its own. Cultural expression through the arts is as varied as the people themselves, with literature, theater, concerts, radio and television programming, entertainment, museums and galleries for every interest and taste.

    • Word count: 4092
  8. Beliefs - "One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter."

    The place was bustling with families, all enthusiastic and optimistic. They could have been contemplating what they should have to eat that afternoon, or could have been discussing their day's activities. All was well, what could go wrong? Suddenly, a 29-year-old woman ran into the restaurant and detonated a belt filled with approximately 22lb of explosives. Everyone around was either wounded or dead. There were pools of blood, bodies of children, and severed limbs scattered across the floor. It was a massacre. The windows were left in smithereens, walls and pillars were riddled with holes, and the ceiling was in tatters.

    • Word count: 1979
  9. Analysing How Conflict Has Affected Human Rights in Israel and Palestine.

    This began when Jews wanted to settle in the Arab-inhabited land of Palestine. When the Ottoman Empire collapsed, Palestine was ruled by Britain, and since the Jews wished for a homeland, Britain had promised support to establish one in Palestine. More Jews began arriving during the 1930s, as the problems grew in Europe, and fighting often broke out as the Arabs resented this. After World War II, more people wanted to move into Palestine, which provoked Britain to restrict the number of settlers allowed in. This angered the Jews and led to Jewish terrorist attacks on both the Arabs and the British.

    • Word count: 1823
  10. Discuss whether a peaceful solution to the arab - Israeli conflict is possible.

    The creation of Israel in 1948 led to clashes with the Arab world, which have continued until the present day. PALESTINIAN REFUGEES 1948 Iraq 4000 Syria 75,00 Jordan 70,000 West Bank 280,000 Gaza 190,000 Egypt 7000 Lebanon 100,000 The root of the Arab-Israeli conflict is that both the Arabs and Jews claim the land, which they now call Israel, is theirs. This is because Jews are descendants from Isaac, Abraham's son who was promised Israel as a God given gift to them forever and Arabs are Descendants from Ishmael, also Abraham's son.

    • Word count: 3352
  11. It is ironic how many wars have begun due to religion.

    During the First World War, Turkey and its empire was allied with Germany, apparently the cause of the war. When Germany lost the war, their allies had to pay reparations and give up colonies amongst the League of Nations (precursor of the UN), which consisted of Great Britain, France, Japan and Italy. The southern half of the Turkish Empire was mandated to France and Great Britain under the Sykes-Picot Agreement. Lebanon and Syria were mandated to France and Palestine (today's Jordan, Israel and the West Bank) to Great Britain. Following the trend of the 19th century, people were beginning to categorize themselves as nations.

    • Word count: 2239
  12. Why was the United Nations Resolution 242 not acceptable to both Israelis and Palestinians in 1967 and the years after?

    Also being on higher ground puts them nearer to Syria and gave them strength. It meant that they had better borders including water ones to mean that there was a lower risk of invasion. Also they would want to have the country as a whole widened to give them more land to give them protection. Also the land they want to own consists of recourses including water and oil, which are vital for survival. Water for drinking, and cleanliness, and oil for selling purposes to make money, and also their own fuel.

    • Word count: 838
  13. Why did the events of 1948 and 1967 lead to the creation of Palestinian refugee problem?

    But the main problem for the British was "what could they actually do?" They were apposed to the partition idea, as they were sure this wouldn't work. This left them with very few ideas. The British were finding the area harder and harder to govern, there were often great out breaks of violence which would take long times to settle and calm. In 1939 the British decided to create a Palestinian state shared between the Arabs and the Jews and to stop Jewish immigration into Palestine.

    • Word count: 1283
  14. What changed between the 1980's and the early 1990's to make many Israelis and Palestinians support the peace efforts of Prime minister Rabin of Israel and Chairman Arafat of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation?

    Curfews were set up, and when there was violence towards them it was met with violence in return. The effect of this produced many deaths of Israeli and Palestinian soldiers. The Intifada gained world wide support for the Palestinians, as pictures were aired on TV, and shocked the world by them seeing sights such as tear-gas and rifles against the Palestinian children. Within Israel itself there was becoming an enormous awareness of the Intifada and what was happening around them, also there was the thought that young Israeli men who were born into this life would start becoming de-humanised.

    • Word count: 749
  15. "What are the long-term Jewish and Palestinian claims to the land of Israel?"

    The Palestinian Arab claim was a lot simpler. It was simple they had always lived in Palestine (The Jews would call it Israel but the Palestinian Arabs would call it Palestine), they had never left it and they were the original settlers there, and not because they had been led by a character such as Moses. The Arabs continued to make more settlements after the Jewish Diaspora. Even which the Turks has established supremacy in the Middle east around c.1500 the Arabs still managed to continue to live in the area and when it came to 1880 and the decline of the Turkish Empire, even more Arab countries were wanting to rule them selves.

    • Word count: 1173
  16. Can Terrorism Be Stopped?

    "Terrorist acts constitute an attack equally upon the individual separately considered; the society in which he lives; the state which he belongs; and the international community if which he forms part (Document 91)." 1 Terrorism in general, whether it is national, transnational or international, not only has generated a "global nightmare," but also threatens the language of violence becoming and everyday answer. So we reflect back and remind ourselves that human violence and aggression is not causing any good. The existence of terrorism is a threat to civilization but there are ways to discourage terrorism and limit or minimize the destructive consequences of terrorism.

    • Word count: 2898
  17. Arab-Israeli conflict.

    Disagreements between Israelis are still common today; Israel's education system is divided into non-religious and religious schools as are its political parties of Likud and Labour. The official Israeli Government view is that the war was started by the Arabs who ignored the UN plan to partition Palestine. This makes their policy legitimate, however their illegal occupation of Gaza and the West Bank is not. Q2) The six day war of 1967 was important in shaping the views of Israeli Jews today.

    • Word count: 1186
  18. A history of Judaism in Morocco.

    In the seventh century, Muslim Arabs invaded North Africa. When they came to Morocco they were quite surprised to find strong Jewish-Berber tribes. One of these tribes was led by the legendary Queen Cahina who, at great odds, was able to ward off the encroaching Arabs for years. Finally defeated, she indignantly burned farms and crops so that they couldn't be captured and pillaged by the Arabs. Many Berber communities were able to keep their Jewish faith by retreating to small mountain and desert villages.

    • Word count: 2015
  19. The role of International law in regards to The Palestinian Dilemma.

    However, the statute of the League of Nations Mandate for Palestine, issued in 1922, was in contradiction with the provisions of article 22 of the League's Covenant insofar as it included in the Preamble and in articles 2, 4, 6 and 7, the basic provisions of the Balfour Declaration. The Mandate for Palestine in itself violated article 22 of the League's Covenant, which proposes, in its first part in connection with the protection of the rights of peoples under the Mandate, a "sacred trust of civilization".

    • Word count: 4559
  20. Conflict between the Palestinians and Israelis has been the story of Middle Eastern relations since the creation of the Israeli State.

    Gandhi later attributed his creation of the tactic of non-violent non-cooperation to three men. Tolstoy, Thoreau and Jesus Christ were the examples that Gandhi claimed to have drawn the idea from (Fischer 74). When he returned to India he set out to use this tactic to bring about the independence of India. He named his movement "Satygraha" meaning peaceful resistance (Fishcer 122). Going throughout the country Gandhi preached the ideal of non-violent non-cooperation. He told his people to stop cooperating with the British lords and landowners, but to not resort to armed resistance.

    • Word count: 2003
  21. Morocco is an incredibly diverse country, both historically and geographically.

    Both the mountains and the desolate sahara have at times acted as geographical barriers and impediments to movement. The have also, however, been at times great assetts strategically and in trade. Its location directly across the strait of gibraltar, only 6 miles from Spain, made Morocco a prime jumping off point for European explorers looking to infiltrate the continent. Indeed, throughout the ages Morrocco has been such a target for foreign interest that its history reads like a history of the entire region - from Phoenicians to Greeks, Romans, Christians and Arabs, every culture of note has had some influence on the country.

    • Word count: 1110
  22. Assess the relationship between the US and Iraq from 1970 to the present day.

    Perhaps no coincidence that there are reports of twenty-four US companies supplying Iraq with various weapons of mass destruction since 1975. The next large-scale event occurred after Saddam Hussein's appointment as head of state in 1979. In his intentions to war with all his enemies, passions escalated between Iraq and Iran. The Iran-Iraq war broke out in 1980 and there are many reports that the US helped fund Iraq with economic assistance, political support, arms, satellite intelligence and the assistance of a US naval battle group.

    • Word count: 2530
  23. The Arab-Israeli Conflict.

    This was because Jews mainly controlled the Israeli government the Palestinians feared they would be outnumbered and so fled. The government encouraged the Jews to move to Israel and so some Palestinians left in fear of the government striking against them. The flight of the Palestinians also made the neighbouring Arab governments unhappy. They feared that they would have to support them. Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan all tried to persuade people not to become refugees. The Lebanese government blocked their borders during the middle of May 1948. A bigger problem lay in the hands of the Israeli government when they tried to return.

    • Word count: 2456
  24. Paper II Media Portrayal of Yasser Arafat and the Palestinian leadership.

    In 1969 Fatah joined the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO). Since then, the former renowned guerilla warrior Arafat is chairing it. In 1970, Arafat and the PLO attempted to dethrone King Hussein of Jordan and failed. As a consequence, he went into exile to Libanon. In the following years, militant PLO members pursued a strategy of terror against Jews in Israel and on international territory. After the first "intifada", the civil war between Jews and Palestinians which lasted for 6 years, Arafat sat down at the negotiation table with Yizhak Rabin in 1992/3.

    • Word count: 760
  25. A novel which I have read recently and which I think fits into the genre of political thrillers is "Talking In Whispers" by James Watson.

    Then Isa's eyes met Andres's eyes and stated that she felt the same way about him. Also after he had been beaten up by the Junta he was then found half dead at the side of the Maipo by a farmer and his daughter named Rosa. When the farmer mentioned the market Andres exclaimed "San Miguel" so then after awhile he was recharged and managed to come up with: "At the market...my friends." All Andres could worry about while lying half dead surrounded by the farmer and Rosa was getting to San Miguel market to see Isa and Beto.

    • Word count: 574

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