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AS and A Level: Middle east

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  1. Arab-Israeli Conflict

    This promise was to France, promising to share the Middle East with the French after the war. In 1916, the Sykes-Picot agreement was drawn up, dividing the Middle East up into large areas. While some areas would be placed under the direct rule of either the French of the British, the rest of the areas would be changed into Arab, with the 'influence' of either the French or British. Understandably, these details of the agreement were all kept secrets at first, but just before the war ended, all the information came out. The third and final promise was made to the Jews in 1917, and was called the Balfour Declaration.

    • Word count: 2331
  2. Discuss why, generally, Americans have a poor opinion of Muslims and Arabs in particular - What can be done to improve relations between Arabs and Americans - Is it important to improve relations?

    Looking closely at the News coverage concerning the middle east and the United States, there is an inherent media bias against Arabs and Muslims as foreign threats to domestic security. They were often portrayed in news reports as uniformly intolerant and anti-democratic. Such coverage has contributed to the public and government misconceptions of Arabs and Muslims as terrorists. Moreover, the media's twisted depiction of the Arabs and Muslims has perpetuated countless stereotypes that affect the American opinion. These stereotypes and misconceptions of the Arabs and Muslims clearly indicate a media bias provoked by ignorance.

    • Word count: 621
  3. To what extent has September 11th affected the peace process in the Middle East?

    The peacekeeping efforts in the Middle East are called the peace process. In 2001 on September eleventh a horrific event happened that prevented the peace process from progressing in the Middle East. A terrorist group called Al Qaeda hijacked four passenger planes in America. One crashed into the pentagon, one was brought down in a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania and the other two were flown into the world Trade Centre. Thousands of lives were lost and the entire of America grieved. The hijacking and the pain it caused had nothing to do with the Palestinians or the Israelis but today both groups are suffering from the repercussions.

    • Word count: 725
  4. Explain the Reasons Why the Israeli State Found It Difficult to Defeat or Come to Terms with the Palestinian Liberation Organization

    Some examples of attacks carried out include at Dawson's field in Jordan in 1970 when three airliners were hijacked and eventually destroyed by the PLO. Then in 1972 at the Munich Olympics a PLO group called 'Black September' was responsible for the deaths of 11 Israeli athletes. Bus-jackings also occurred and in 1978 a PLO suicide squad based in south Lebanon attacked a bus near Tel-Aviv and killed 37 passengers. Terrorist attacks such as these often provoked retaliation from the Israelis.

    • Word count: 1204
  5. There will never be a free and independent Kurdistan

    Instead, it only attempts to exemplify that there will never be one. First of all, the fundamental geographical implications will be presented; followed by three counter arguments, which will support the potential for a free Kurdistan. Explanations will determine why these misconceptions do not apply in reality. Then, two supporting factors will be presented. This will further prove that the will never be an self-governing Kurdistan. The 25 million Kurdish people whom form this minority have a culture that is distinctively separate from their Turkish, Arab and Persian neighbors.

    • Word count: 1163
  6. The Part Played By Yasser Arafat In The Move Towards a Palestinian State.

    Despite this set-back in Arafat's campaign, he gained many new supporters who believed in what he was doing. Later that year he was assigned the position of leader of the PLO, the 'umbrella' for the organisation of the main guerrilla movements. This further made his motives look like they were in the interests of terror. The two lost wars had been set-backs for Arafat but he kept up the threat by launching cross-border raids from the new PLO head quarters in Lebanon, having been driven out of Jordan by King Hussein. After the Munich Massacre in 1972, Arafat gave his definite approval, and yet later claimed he had always been against it.

    • Word count: 1082
  7. Nationalism in the Middle East

    Nationalism brought about the prosperity and fall of many countries such as Israel and the various national groups contained within it. Jewish nationalism was the main driving force in the creation of the state of Israel in 1948 to accommodate the substantial amount of Jews, and Zionist pioneer settlers who "saw the Arab population as small, apolitical and without a nationalist element and they therefore believed that there would not be friction between the two communities."[2][2] The creation of the state of Israel promoted Israeli nationalism and pride in their nation to the point where not many Israeli citizens disagreed with the conscription of both males and females into the army at the age of 18.

    • Word count: 1153
  8. Examine the role of writing in the development of urban bureaucratic civilisations in the Middle East from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age

    who believed it was important to communicate information, mostly about the government and religion. They used writing for thousands of years, and developed many uses for writing, where today we can find scribes on tomb walls and temples to share their beliefs and explore their culture.They developed many types of scripts, most famously the Hieroglyphic script which formed about 100 years which dissipated in approximately 300 B.C.

    • Word count: 241
  9. To what extent is the city of Jerusalem vital to the followers of three main world religions in the present time?

    The last place he slept, had his meal, preached, was caught by the Romans, crucified, buried, and resurrected. Jerusalem was also the first place, which Christianity was primarily preached, and after Jesus' death, it was the capital of the new religion. It is thought that Jesus made frequent visits to the Temple of Jerusalem and would go "for the Passover feast,"2 where he would find numerous supporters awaiting him, to observe his preaching's and his performance of extraordinary miracles. Jesus was considered as a threat to the government, which eventually led to his arrest in a small "valley outside Jerusalem."3 The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was established on what Joseph of Arimathea thought was Jesus' grave.

    • Word count: 4430
  10. Why is it so difficult to keep the peace talks going in the Middle East?

    After the Jewish people not having a homeland for nearly 2000 Years. The new state of Israel was formed in 1948 by a UN vote. The Arabs disagreed with having a Jewish state. After the 6-day war in 1967, Palestinians had even less land than before.

    • Word count: 369
  11. How Important Was the Holocaust in the Establishment of an Independent State of Israel?

    The Jewish people had been searching for a homeland ever since biblical times. The history of the Jewish people has not been a good one. Throughout history they have forever been a religion that has been wandering around Asia and Europe being badly treated and abused. The Jewish people originate from Palestine, they lived alongside the Arabs in a land which was called 'the land of the Israelites' Jews had a different religious perspective to others in the area and when the Romans conquered that area they were treated badly because of their beliefs and not sticking to the roman religious views.

    • Word count: 637
  12. Arab-Israeli Conflict: Causes of Conflict

    Muslims have a special word for Jerusalem it is 'Al-Quds' which means the Holy Place in Arabic. Israel used to own only half of Jerusalem and Jordan had the other half of Jerusalem. Now though Israel have total control over Jerusalem. Because of Jerusalem being a holy city for both countries it creates a lot of Conflict between them. The problems over War and Occupation are short-term problems. In 1947 Israel was given about half of the country and the Arabs got the West Bank, the Gaza strip and bits of land to the North and South sides of Israel.

    • Word count: 1715
  13. The Arab-Israeli Conflict

    Or the magazine may be supporting the Arabs as they lost and the British should be sympathetic to their loss? Although Source C is very one sided it does have use for the study of American reactions to the six-day war. The source shows that nearly all of America fully supported the Israelis. The concert was fund raising for the Israelis and many famous people either from music; television and film supported their cause. This I believe was due to the fact that a lot of these famous people were either Jewish, sympathetic to the Jewish cause or didn't like Arabs.

    • Word count: 1142
  14. The Six Day War

    The Arabs lost many men as the war had taken place in Egypt. They also lost many weapons as the Israelis had destroyed them. A hundred and seventy Israelis were killed in comparison with a thousand Egyptians massacred. Egypt was destined to lose the war. After the 1956 war, Arab nationalism increased and so did the demand for revenge by President Nasser. The formation of a united Arab military command that troops along the borders and Nassers persistence in 1967 that the United Nations leave Egypt, made Israel attack Egypt, Syria and Jordan on the fifth of June on that year.

    • Word count: 1019
  15. How important was the Holocaust in the establishment of an independent state of Israel?

    He was a journalist for a newspaper in Vienna, where he was send to Paris to cover one of the most famous law cases, the trial of the Jewish army Captain Albert Dreyfus. He was accused of spying, although the evidence against him was faked, he was found guilty because he was Jewish. Herzl was appalled by the violent Anti-Semitism he saw in France. It was this that gave him the idea that Jews ought to have a state of their own, and two years later he produced a pamphlet, Judenstaat (Jewish State)

    • Word count: 936
  16. Can Terrorism Be Beaten?

    There are many ways that Terrorism cannot be beaten here are a few. The biggest reason is the numbers off terrorism this is a educated guess but I would say 1/20 of the worlds population are involved in terrorist activities. That is a lot and the countries that are poorer like Afghanistan, Bangladesh and other Asian countries have a few very powerful leaders who are widely looked up to and they oppress they views on others who follow like sheep and that is why terrorism is mainly is poor countries because of the power some have over others.

    • Word count: 837
  17. The Lebanon Civil War: Syria’s Role in Lebanon

    A cause would be probably Lebabanon's very minor and weak worker's organizations, reduced because of increasing and emigration of Lebanon's people in Arabic and other and states. Closure of factories and enterprises also, resulted with terrible civil war that was happened in the year 1975. In that war the most of magnificent achievements that were made during the years before were destroyed. Going out of that fratricide war with all political, social, religious and ethnic oppositions inside of the country, Lebanon become again an attractive place, but now for hundred thousand Palestinian refugees along with their armed forces.

    • Word count: 3438
  18. Explain the creation of the state of Israel in May 1948!

    The Crusades failed because the Muslims stayed in control of the holy land. When the Jews were in Europe they were always thought as been foreign, mean and evil. Jews were blamed for crisis e.g. the plague and were also blamed when the Jews were massacred and also because of the crucifixion of Jesus. Due to these foul deeds some countries expelled their Jews or confined them to separate areas of certain cities away from the rest of the community.

    • Word count: 518
  19. Terrorism and the United States

    A major problem in discussing terrorism is establishing a generally accepted definition. Terrorism can be described as the unlawful use of fear or force to achieve certain political, economical, or social aims and religion ideology. Because it is so hard to define, organizations like the United Nations have had great difficulty drawing up policies against terrorism. Terrorist actions may be committed by a single individual, a certain group, or even governments. Most terrorists, unlike criminals, claim to be dedicated to higher causes, and do not believe in personal gain.

    • Word count: 1488
  20. India And Pakistan’s Involvement and Terrorism

    The Indian government acted in haste when it wholeheartedly supported the proposed US National Missile Defence programme. Home Minister L K Advani said the US might have faced a terrorist attack for the first time last month, India has for many decades suffered human casualties and material losses at the hands of menacing terrorists who have been supported by certain neighbouring countries. India have been victims of terrorist strikes that have taken place in Mumbai, Jammu and Kashmir for years and a global initiative against this menace is most desirable. Infact, just last week 40 people including women and children were killed in a suicide bombing by Pakistani fundamentalists in Srinagar, the capital of Kashmir.

    • Word count: 1408
  21. To what extent is the city of Jerusalem vital to the followers of three main world religions in the present time?

    To Christians, Jerusalem is the place, which witnessed most of Jesus' upbringing, preaching, crucifixion, and also where he was said to have been resurrected. A majority of significant Christian sites nowadays, in and around Jerusalem are to do with the whereabouts of his final days. The last place he slept in, had his meal, preached, was caught by the Romans, crucified, buried, and resurrected. Jerusalem was also the first place, which Christianity was primarily preached, and after Jesus' death, it was the capital of the new religion.

    • Word count: 5528
  22. Should the West intervene militarily in Syria?

    There are a number of reasons as to why I am against military intervention from the west. I disagree with the statement at hand, firstly because I find it ludicrous that the metaphorical ?red line? has been drawn so late. President Obama claims that the use of chemical weapons is the ?line not to be crossed? and I find this ridiculous for the reason that if this ?red line? had been drawn previously, then there is very strong possibility that chemical weapons would not have been used at all.

    • Word count: 1166
  23. Why has it proved so difficult to find a solution to the Israeli-Palestine conflict?

    As time passed, violence grew and the militant groups became more popular among Palestinians living in densely populated and impoverished conditions. Israel responded with arrests, economic sanctions and the expansion of Jewish settlements in the West Bank and Gaza. These settlements were special targets of militant Palestinians and as Palestinian violence increased, so did the violence of Israeli retaliation. Confronted by continuing violence, the parties agreed to attend a formal international conference in Madrid in 1991, while, at the same time, meeting secretly in Oslo, Norway.

    • Word count: 1124
  24. Radovan Karadzic MUN Position paper

    from their homes and the harsh treatment of people who were allowed to stay; two charges for terror, and unlawful attacks which constitute the killings, maiming, wounding, and terrorizing of thousands of civilians in both Sarajevo and Srebrenica; one count for the taking of hostages for the abduction of more than 200 UN peacekeepers and military observers to prevent NATO from entering Bosnia. The two main viewpoints of this case are in fact the two extremes. Most observers believe that Karadzic is guilty of all charges with enough physical proof, such as intercepted phone calls and more than 150 prosecution witnesses (still 50 left), to show that he was in charge of the ?ethnic cleansing? of Bosnia-Herzegovina.

    • Word count: 877

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